Iodine is an essential and not synthesized in the human body trace elements necessary for life - or rather, for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and its production of synthesized hormones.Man gets iodine from the outside of liquids and food, as well as some medications.
- 3-5% is supplied with water
- 3-5% comes from the air
- 60% of products of animal origin
- 30% plant products
optimum amount of iodine in the body is the prevention of thyroid pathologies.The body of a healthy person with a surprising constancy holds constant the concentration of iodine in the blood to form a blood called Iodine mirror (10-5 - 10-6%).
- daily requirement of iodine for adults is 150-300 mcg
- for pregnant and lactating women - 400 mcg
- for children - 40-140 mg depending on age
- with iodine deficiency in the body must be supplied at least 400 micrograms of iodine.
micronutrient deficiencies of iodine or iodine deficiency in one degree or another is found in one in four people.
Interesting facts abo
discovery of trace elements occurred in the early 18th century chemist Bernard Courtois, who was involved in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate - later it was used for the production of gunpowder.Nitrate extracted from seaweed, where it was discovered iodine, becoming random and such an important discovery.The name was given by the color of the trace element ( "Yodos" in Greek means purple).The source for the industrial isolation of iodine are:
- brown oil water
- solutions of sodium nitrate.
Features assimilation of iodine
- Iodine refers to chemical compounds called halogens.This group also includes the fluorine, chlorine and bromine, which can displace himself from any iodine compounds.Consequently, the consumption of chlorinated water, excessive intake of fluorine-containing drugs and treatment drugs reduce the amount of brominated iodine.
- Specific substances that are contained in of red and cauliflower, turnips, radishes, soybeans, mustard and swede, blocking the reaction of iodine metabolism, so they should not be combined with iodine-containing products.
- Some medications also block the absorption of iodine:. Cordarone, penicillin, erythromycin, sulfonamides, bromine, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, aspirin, hormones and other
- When dysbacteriosis violated iodine absorption.
- improves the absorption of these minerals iodine cobalt, manganese, selenium, copper -Product their content useful to combine with iodine-containing food.
- When preparing food thermally nearly 50% of iodine is destroyed.At high temperatures, the iodine disappears, so the food is better to boil or stew, rather than fry.Salt, enriched with iodine, add a ready-made meal.
signs of iodine deficiency
Half incoming iodine absorbed by the thyroid gland to build the body of two hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine.These hormones regulate important functions carried out of the body, and their deficiency immediately affects the state of the heart, skin and its appendages, the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, the mental activity of man, etc.
Iodine deficiency - hidden hunger
first symptoms of iodine deficiency are nonspecific and disguised as dystonia: a person is experiencing general weakness, malaise, depressed mood, susceptibility to colds.During this period, the lack of iodine is not yet acute, as part of their cost is covered by the body of stored reserves in the thyroid gland.
Lack of iodine in the body - obvious symptoms
The next step is a compensatory enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is trying to catch up the pace of synthesizing Gomonov.Gradually developing organ dysfunction, and the body begins to signal a lack of iodine more eloquently:
- Overweight.Against the background of an imbalance of hormones is reduced basal metabolic rate, which affects the weight of the person.
- Apathy, drowsiness, lethargy, forcing people to change jobs and your former way of life.Changes in human behavior is always observed others and often are written off depression.
- Inability to get pregnant or early miscarriage, which are also the result of an imbalance of thyroid hormones.
- Violations of mental activity: deterioration of understanding, memory, orientation in space and other
- In children iodine deficiency leads to the development of cretinism, which are symptoms of growth retardation and dwarfism, mental retardation, disturbance of body proportions..
diseases related to iodine
drawback How dangerous iodine deficiency in the body:
- Children kreatinizm - a form of congenital hypothyroidism is caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone and characterized by reduction of its functions, delayed mental and physical development of the child.
- Myxedema - manifestations of hypothyroidism in adults: mucosal edema, decreased metabolism, general weakness, accelerated aging.
- Endemic goiter - hypothyroidism and a sharp increase in the thyroid gland, which nodes are visible through the skin, even visually.Endemic - this means that the pathology associated with natural iodine deficiency in certain areas (mountains, remote from the sea areas, the extreme north).Increased thyroid gland is regarded as a precancerous condition.
- Iodine deficiency during pregnancy , which can lead to fetal malformation, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation.Children born in the state of iodine deficiency have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer.
Home way to diagnose iodine deficiency
There is a simple test, which suggests a lack of iodine in the body.To diagnose the need ordinary alcohol tincture of iodine for external use.A cotton swab dipped in iodine and on the inside of the forearm draw 3 lines:
- 1 - one prorisovyvanie
- 2 - spend twice
- 3 along the line - three times iodine draw the line.
procedure is done before bedtime and in the morning estimated result: disappeared, only the first line speaks of a sufficient amount of iodine in the body, missing the first two lines of the hidden signal trace element deficiency, and three missing lines indicate explicit iodine deficiency - it's time to go to the doctor!
How to eliminate iodine deficiency in the body
eliminate micronutrient imbalance in two ways:
- by rationalizing power to include in the daily diet foods and liquids containing iodine in the required amounts
- by applying an artificially synthesized drugs iodine.
big mistake is illiterate self, when people do not even see a doctor, begin to heal themselves diverse Badami, trying to fix something that is not possible!
If there is a suspicion of the presence of iodine deficiency should consult a physician, who, if necessary, referred to an endocrinologist for examinations: thyroid ultrasound and blood on hormones.The doctor will adjust the power and prescribe medication if necessary.
What foods are rich in iodine
Products containing iodine in large numbers - they are representatives of marine flora and fauna.
- For example, 100 grams.dry kelp (seaweed) completely covers the daily human dose of iodine.This does not mean that every day should eat that is the number, because iodine is contained in other products.But any flavor dry seaweed salads and ready meals can and should be, the main thing - do not expose the product to heat treatment.
- Because animal food in iodine rich sea fish and other sea food of animal origin (mussels, shrimp and so on.).They must be present in the diet at least 2-3 times per week.
- From our usual iodine rich foods red meat, eggs, milk, fruits and vegetables - peas, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, bananas, black currant, aronia.
- Folk wisdom says that 5 pips of the apple (seeds) completely fill the daily norm of iodine, the main thing to chew them thoroughly.Some official sources confirm this information, but abused by this method precisely is not necessary - in addition to the beneficial trace elements, grains and contain dangerous prussic acid.
Based on the following table (the number of micrograms per 100 g. Of the product), you can create a diet so that the regulatory amount of trace elements from food.At the same time we must not forget that during the heat treatment about 50% of the iodine disappears.If your doctor has prescribed the drug intake iodide - this too should be considered, not too zealous with iodine-containing food.
Approximate daily rate of iodine
|ug / day|
|children under one year||40-60|
|from 1-3 years||70|
|with 3-7 years||100|
|people over 18 years||150-300|
artificially enriched with iodine
products Since the problem of iodine deficiency has long acquired a global scale, we have become familiar to us manufactured foods fortified with iodine salt, drinking and mineral water, bread, milk, etc..
iodized salt can be found in every home, but that it was really a useful salt, a number of conditions must be met:
- their useful properties of salt retains only 3-4 months from the date of manufacture;
- if the salt Podmokly or stored in an open container - part of the iodine is also evaporate;
- iodine instantly leaves the salt when it is boiling, so add salt should be ready and slightly cooled food;
- this type of salt should not be used in pickling of vegetables, as a natural fermentation can not take place, as the products will acquire a bitter taste.
Mineral water with iodine
Mineral water with a lot of natural iodine perfectly compensate for the deficiency in the body elements:. Esliseevskaya, Lysogorskaya, Arkhyz, mountain, etc. For example, in the water "Lysogorskaya" contains 200 mcg of iodine in 0.5 liters of liquid.However, the use of mineral water has its contraindications, and replace them plain water can not, therefore, be treated saline water is possible only with permission of a doctor.
iodine preparations are used as externally on the skin and mucous membranes for antiseptic purposes, as well as internally - in atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract, tertiary syphilis, chronic poisoning by mercury and lead.A separate group of drugs make drugs for the treatment and prevention of endemic goiter.
iodine is used for the treatment of female diseases - fibrocystic breast, uterine fibroids and endometriosis.In this case, iodine promotes conversion reactions estradiol estirol less active hormone.
Contraindications to the internal treatment of iodine preparations
- Pulmonary tuberculosis
- hemorrhagic diathesis
- Kidney Diseases
- chronic pyoderma, acne
- Chronic rhinitis
- intolerance iodine preparations.
not use iodine preparations for topical use inside!Long-term use of iodine preparations or exceeding the recommended doses leads to the phenomenon yodizma - sudden weight loss, weakness and loss of vitality, watery eyes, hives, angioedema and other allergic reactions..
Preparations for elimination of iodine deficiency
Reception iodine drugs in a therapeutic dose affects the metabolism and enhance the function of the thyroid gland.Small doses of iodine drugs inhibit the activity of the thyroid gland, inhibiting the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary.Iodine also affects fat and protein metabolism, lowering of blood cholesterol and reducing its clotting.The composition
drugs include potassium iodide and sodium - inorganic iodides.The formulations contain from 25 to 25 micrograms of iodine.The modern pharmaceutical industry produces a lot of drugs and dietary supplements with iodine, with a difference of only a trade name and quantity of iodine in the dosage form:
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- Laminaria and fucus - a separate group should include these plant drugs in their receiptinitial product undergoes a minimum of changes.
- multivitamin complex - in addition to single-component products, iodine in a suitable dose is contained in the complexes: High Mineral Complex, Centrum, Vitamaks, etc. (see the benefits and harms of vitamin tablets.)..
prescribers on the course with the subsequent reception of the control of blood and thyroid hormones.Multiplicity and duration of reception determined by the physician.
Prevention of iodine deficiency is a nutritious food without ignoring marine products, not very loved by some people, but useful, and without exaggeration, vital.