Sauna - harm and benefits , indications and contraindications , rules taking bath procedures

Room is the place of the traditional pastime of one or more nights during each week in many people.

  • Some believe bath powerful health treatments
  • Other - rest for the soul and body
  • others - a serious risk factor for several diseases.

Each of these theories has its own truth, as we and examine in this article.Saunas are an active method of heat exposure on the surface of the body and respiratory system high temperatures.The therapeutic effect of bath treatment is aimed at eliminating some of the functional changes in the body:

  • increase the reserve of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
  • accelerate blood microcirculation and lymph
  • improved immune reactivity.

Classification and types of baths bath

type is determined by the particular microclimate heat chamber (steam):

  • traditional Russian sauna characterized by saturation of the steam room steam of air which forms a mist with 100% humidity.The air temperature in the Russian steam bath is 40-50 C.
  • Roman Bath different heating dry air, the temperature in the room tepidarium is 40-45 C, and in a heat chamber - 60-70 C. Hot air supply is carried out through the holes in the flooror walls.
  • Turkish bath - it comes to temperature 40-50 C, humidity is regulated by the warming of water in boilers and often reaches 100%.
  • Finnish sauna - different from all the other special microclimate: air temperature reaches 70-100 C, a temperature gradient in the areas of the floor and the ceiling is 60 C and the relative humidity in the range of 10-15%.
  • Japanese bath - involves bathing in the drums at 40 and then 60 C. Humidity in the room can also be up to 80-100%.
  • infrared sauna (infrared ) - provides air heating to 45-60 C and humidity of 45-65%.It is believed that an infrared sauna - a benefit for the body with minimal risk to health, so this type of bath, many people assembled, even in apartments.

Banja useful or harmful?

Physiological baths directly connected with humidity indicator.Steam Bath always leads to a more significant functional changes and early overheating than dry air.Due to inhalation of hot steam hindered gas exchange and evaporation of sweat, but in the pulmonary circulatory system accounted for a large load.

The greatest danger posed by the action of elevated temperatures on the body - this is the activation of malignant degeneration of cells in the presence of pre-cancerous diseases, of which you can not guess, and also at risk of hereditary cancer.Because after 40 years, the risk of tumors increases significantly, this category of people just do not turn the bath in a lifetime hobby.

positive impact baths and saunas

In this paragraph, we will discuss the main aspects of the positive impact of climate bath and sauna for a healthy body by strictly metered exposure time agreed with the doctor, as well as the damage has on the body bath procedures.

organism system

positive impact

negative impact

Heat Transfer
  • stimulation of the thermoregulatory mechanism;
  • prompt adaptation to changes of temperatures.
  • uncompensated burden on the basic physiological systems;
  • Violations heat balance;
  • Overheating (heat stroke): severe weakness, blood clots, decreased muscle tone, increased blood pressure, dry mouth, syncope.
  • speed Increase basal metabolism by 20%;
  • Acceleration sweating (from 200 to 2100 ml), resulting in the activation of the output products of metabolism through the skin;
  • Remedy overt and covert edema;
  • Reducing weight in proportion to the lost fluid.
  • loss of water, lactic acid, ions, urea and amino acids in sweat;
  • dehydration, leading to adverse changes in the protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
autonomic nervous system
  • Activation of both divisions of the autonomic system;
  • Improving adaptation capabilities of the organism.
  • Autonomic dysfunction;
  • Dizziness, anxiety;
  • Sleep Disorders.
Endocrine glands Increasing levels:
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone: the extinction of inflammatory processes, improving intelligence;
  • beta-endorphin, a positive effect on mood, social activity and possessing antidepressant action;
  • growth hormone that accelerates protein synthesis and fat breakdown.

Increasing levels:
  • aldosterone: increase in blood volume and increased excretion of potassium;
  • angiotensin II of, constricts blood vessels and leads to an increase in blood pressure, delaying sodium in the body;
  • vasopressin, water retention in the body;
  • cortisol, which increases blood pressure and causes the body's stress;
  • adrenaline, which increases blood pressure and capable of causing an arrhythmia that increases the mental stress;
  • norepinephrine, narrows peripheral blood vessels, increase coronary blood flow and increases blood pressure.
  • Achieving mental and emotional relaxation;
  • Reduced excitability;
  • Improving the quality of sleep (deep sleep phase increase up to 45%).
  • emergence of headaches;
  • Poor health;
  • Anxiety and other unpleasant sensations;
  • Fear, anxiety.
  • Increased blood pressure and increase in cardiac output, resulting in a favorable adaptation reactions CCC;
  • distsirkulyatsionnyh Prevention of violations.
  • reaction Deterioration CCC on standard load;
  • Spasm of peripheral vessels;
  • Nosebleed
  • arrhythmia, tachycardia;
  • critical increase in blood pressure, which can lead to heart attack, hypertensive crisis and myocardial infarction over
  • or vice versa pressure drop.
  • Increased blood supply to the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract;
  • bronchodilator effect;
  • Reducing the viscous and elastic resistance of the lung tissue;
  • Improved alveolar gas exchange.
  • transition lung colds in severe forms (bronchitis and pneumonia);
  • Increased risk of lung cancer.
  • Improvement trophic tissue;
  • saturation of muscle glucose and the activation of regenerative processes;
  • Relaxed muscles - that's why so popular a sauna after the gym;
  • Improving metabolic processes in bone and muscle;
  • Reducing spasms and contractures.
  • Exacerbation of chronic diseases (rheumatism, myalgia);
  • Violation of tissue repair processes while visiting bath immediately after the injury or operation.

At the beginning of this section, we wrote about the impact of dosing, which should be treated with the utmost seriousness.The thin line between benefit and harm saunas and baths are inside this time interval, which many ignore, sitting up in the steam room for half an hour and slay useless "records".It is also important to observe the cyclical procedure: preparation, temperature influence, cooling and relaxation.

harm of Finnish sauna baths and other types most often associated with failure to comply with the residence time in the heat chamber, neglect contraindications, a visit to the steam room in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

Bath and sauna: contraindications and indications

General contraindications:

  • precancers
  • Cancer
  • acute illness or exacerbation of chronic diseases
  • Tuberculosis of any localization
  • Hyperthermia
  • Children under 3 years old, and a steam room -10-12 years
  • deep old age (over 75 years)




  • dystonia,
  • non-inflammatory myocarditis,
  • compensated CHD 1-2 grade without signs of failure and cardiac arrhythmia,
  • hypertension 1-2 stages.
  • Hypertensive disease stage 3,
  • malignant hypertension,
  • cardiomyopathy,
  • inflammation of the CCC,
  • atherosclerosis legs 3 stages,
  • decompensated heart disease,
  • thrombophlebitis,
  • bleeding tendency,
  • artificial pacemaker,
  • stroke and heart attack in history.


  • Chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract in acute asthma
  • recovery period after pneumonia.
  • SARS, influenza
  • bronchiectasis
  • decompensated pulmonary disease.

nervous system

  • Radicular vertobrogennye pain syndromes
  • residual manifestations of paralysis
  • myopathy and myotonia dystrophic type
  • cerebral palsy, enuresis in children
  • muscular hypertonicity
  • neuroses, insomnia.
  • Epilepsy
  • myasthenia gravis, myelopathy
  • vascular cerebral palsy vascular etiology
  • syringomyelia
  • migraine
  • dysmotility in the background of extrapyramidal disorders
  • Parkinson's disease
  • termosensornye disorder.


  • Violation posture
  • condition remote rehabilitation after injuries of joints and soft tissues, and operations (after 3-4 months)
  • pathology ligaments, muscles,fascias
  • deforming arthrosis
  • reactive and rheumatoid arthritis during remission
  • noninflammatory ankylosing spondylitis
  • arthritic and psoriatic arthritis
  • metabolic osteopathy.
  • early rehabilitation period after injuries and operations
  • corticosteroid therapy
  • injury in the acute stage.


  • Nonspecific cystitis in chronic course
  • chronic inflammation of the prostate and testicles (not tubercular etiology)
  • small urolithiasis
  • interstitial nephritis
  • noninflammatory chronic glomerulonephritis.
  • Renal impairment
  • hypoalbuminemia
  • hydronephrosis
  • renal failure.


  • Peptic ulcer disease in remission
  • motor-evacuation functional bowel disorders
  • chronic cholecystitis without stones.
  • Chronic hepatitis
  • liver failure
  • proktokolity.

Gynecology and Obstetrics

  • Infertility (primary and secondary)
  • amenorrhea
  • chronic diseases of female genitalia without exacerbation
  • ovarian dysmenorrhea
  • menopausal syndrome in the lung during
  • during pregnancythe question is not unequivocal (most gynecologists do not recommend sauna and bath during the childbearing)
  • Inflammatory diseases in the acute course
  • state after gynecological operations
  • early pregnancy
  • pregnancy complications
  • menstruation
  • heavy climax.

This list of evidence does not mean that the presence of this pathology can safely go to the bath.In good, reading for a bath - a state of absolute physical and mental health.Any person should reasonably and realistically weighed the possibilities, not equal to others and not to jeopardize their health (and sometimes life) for the sake of the desire to show someone their incredible ability to high temperatures standing.

Contraindications to the Russian bath and other types of baths goes on and on an individual basis.Absolutely healthy people do not, there nedoobsledovannye.In this medical joke a lot of truth, so you should carefully weigh the possible harm and the dubious benefits of bath procedures.

can not go to the bath

  • on an empty stomach and immediately after a meal;
  • after intense exercise;
  • during and after taking alcohol (high risk of dehydration, burns hot air);
  • on a background of psychological stress.

Admission Rules bath procedures

  • Before bath procedures should quench your thirst (mineral water without gas, green tea, water).
  • Before entering the heat chamber should take a warm shower and wipe dry with a body to create the best conditions for the natural thermoregulation and sweating.

procedure involves a cyclic process:

  • stay in the steam room of about 3-12 minutes
  • subsequent short cooling for 3-10 minutes
  • rest for 15-20 minutes.

permissible 2-3 cyclic approach to the final rest for at least half an hour.During the rest should restore fluid balance in the body by slowly drinking clean water, non-carbonated mineral water, berry fruit drinks.During the final relaxation you need to drink 300-500 ml herbal tea.

duration of stay in the heat chamber (doubles) - this is strictly an individual time period, depending on the age hardened and overall health.Some perfectly healthy people simply can not tolerate steam room and immediately feel bad.In any case, it is necessary to start from a few minutes, gradually adding 2 minutes.The first time you need is on the lower levels, with covered head and dry to avoid heat stroke.

cooling phase, too, should not be extreme (diving in the icy pool, wiping snow).Optimally - the room with a cool microclimate.

Steam treatments should not be repeated more than 1 time in 7-14 days.They should not be combined with other procedures, causing significant load on the body (swimming, weight training).The next morning, after a bath person should feel rested and alert, if it turns out the other way around - a bath better to tie.