- Types of ovarian cysts
- What are the symptoms of ovarian cyst?
- Torsion and rupture of ovarian cysts: Symptoms, Risk Factors
- Why does ovarian cysts: causes
- corpus luteum cyst - what is it?
- Follicular ovarian cyst - Symptoms and Treatment
- other dangerous types of ovarian cysts in women
- Treatment of ovarian cysts
ovarian cyst - a benign tumor, which is a tumor on the leg with liquid content inside and tend to increase withaccumulation of secretions.There are several kinds of them, and often the symptoms of the disease are missing.
But with long-term development and increase in size of the tumor indications may appear irregular menstruation, problems with urination, pain in the abdomen.In the absence of adequate treatment for ovarian cysts, the disease can be complicated by its rupture, torsion legs that dangerous peritonitis, acute abdomen.In this article, we will focus in detail on the description of types of ovarian cysts, symptoms and treatment of this disease.
Types of ovarian cysts
The term cyst refers to a number of different tumors, which differ not only localization - breast cyst, cyst kidney, thyroid and pancreas, etc., but also the emergence of reasons the structure.
Ovarian cysts may occur in girls during puberty, and women of childbearing age, and in women in menopause (see. Preparations at menopause in women).30% of women diagnosed with normal menstrual cycles, and 50% have different cycle disorders, menopause 6% of women, they are detected.What are cysts?
- corpus luteum cyst
- Follicular cyst
- Endometrial cysts
- dermoid cyst
- Paraovarialnye - nadyaichnikovogo appendage
What are the symptoms of ovarian cyst?
For most women, their discovery occurs by chance, after a routine examination or diagnosis regarding other diseases or complaints.This is because when ovarian cysts in women of symptoms in most cases can not be felt.Only in cases of large, long-term existence of neoplasms, with polycystic ovaries, you may experience the following symptoms:
For small cysts is no pain in women does not occur, and with the growth of tumors can appear dull pain in the lower abdomen,aggravated by sexual intercourse (see. of pain during sexual intercourse) during exercise.Thus often localized pain on one side, where there are a neoplasm.It may not even be a pain, and a feeling of heaviness and compression in the pelvis.If there is a complication, such as a torsion or cyst rupture, the pain becomes very intense, given in the rectum, increased body temperature, there is vomiting, nausea, symptoms of ovarian cyst rupture resemble the syndrome of "acute abdomen".For dermoid tumors characteristic of torsion for lutein - a gap, at break of follicular cysts can be short-term pain is not dangerous to health.
- pain during urination, frequent urination, symptoms of compression of blood vessels and organs
Frequent urination, and pain at the same time can be caused by the pressure of cysts on the bladder.As well as the growing ovarian cyst may put pressure on the lower bowel, this is manifested by constipation (see. All laxatives for constipation), false urge to defecate.When compression of the venous vascular bundles may develop varicose veins of the lower extremities (see. The treatment of varicose veins at home).
- Menstrual irregularities
hormonally active tumors manifested amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), painful menstruation, heavy menstruation, uterine bleeding and cycle disorders - delay, infrequent menstruation is not regular.
- facial hair growth, deepening of voice
Hirsutism - when there are hairs on the body and face of male type, rough voice, enlargement of the clitoris, this is due to the enhanced production of male sex hormones, ie giperandrogenizatsiya body.
- Asymmetry and abdominal enlargement with large amounts of cysts
This phenomenon is the growth of abdominal circumference, and the asymmetry arise either due to ascites, when accumulated in the abdominal cavity fluid, or from large brush sizes.
Symptoms of torsion and rupture of the cyst
With provoke cyst rupture or torsion of the cyst may stem excessive physical activity (pan, tilt, sudden movements, jumps, etc.), lifting weights and overly active sexual intercourse. When a torsion or ovarian cyst rupture, the symptoms are so obviously indicate a serious complication that the woman, in any case, must call an ambulance.
- gap is characterized primarily by signs of intra-abdominal bleeding (provided that the damaged sufficiently large vessel in the cyst with her break)
- severe abdominal pain radiating to the leg, into the rectum, at the same timeMore pain on the side, which was a cyst, if the right ovary - is on the right side and gives pain in the right leg.
- if burst cyst on the ovary, the symptoms also appear lower blood pressure, as there is bleeding into the abdominal cavity, there are signs of general intoxication, dizziness, cold sweats, delayed stool, acute vascular insufficiency, that is faint
- symptomsirritation of the peritoneum, which suggests a syndrome of acute abdomen
If there was a twisting, the clinic depends on the degree of torsion (90, 180 or 360 degrees).The stronger twisting the leg, the more intense the pain.The patient takes a forced position (on your side with those given to the abdomen legs bent).In this case, the intoxication syndrome develops quickly.Fever, appear dyspepsia (nausea, vomiting), if untreated, develop peritonitis (also showing signs of peritoneal irritation).The gradual increase in symptoms characteristic of incomplete torsion ovarian cyst legs (90 degrees).
When torsion of the cyst, the symptoms usually are also evident, when you turn the cysts around itself, there is a leg curl, which is located neoplasm, this leads to impaired blood flow, leading to nausea, abdominal pain, and the pain is localized more in the side of the location of the damagedneoplasms.Moreover, these symptoms cyst torsion can grow gradually and woman can not understand the cause of illness.It is therefore very important in detecting tumors in the event of even minor ailments in time to see a doctor and be screened regularly, as long as the cyst does not resolve or not indications for its removal.
Why there is an ovarian cyst?
Because the exact causes of the growth of tumors in women are not known, many experts are only general laws, which combine several factors encountered in ovarian cysts in women.And often these reasons can be multiple as hormonal causes and inflammatory:
- frequent surgery - miniaborty consequences of abortion (35% of the cysts of growth just after the abortion, as occurs and inflammation, and hormonal failure)
- Chronicpelvic inflammatory disease - sexually transmitted infections, adnexitis (oophoritis, see the symptoms, treatment of inflammation of appendages.), endometriosis, etc.
- hormonal imbalance, ovarian dysfunction, early menstruation (before 11 years), the lack of ovulation and violation of maturation of the follicle
- .Diseases of the thyroid gland, often at lower thyroid function, and other endocrine disorders.
- Obesity, diabetes - this leads to disruption of hormone production.
- often already healed before the cyst leads to relapse, so even after the removal or dispersal, should regularly visit a gynecologist to perform all of the recommendations and carry out maintenance treatment.
Also, for each type is characterized by certain common reason:
- Follicular and cysts of the corpus luteum - occur on the background of hormonal imbalance
- dermoid - is a congenital form of cysts, which exists in girls from birth
- Polycystic ovarian endometrioidcyst - arise against other diseases of women
- cystadenoma - a benign tumor, reaching large
- ovarian carcinoma - cancer, like other cancers, causes and cancer formation theories lot
risk factors for the development of cysts
- age up to 50 years
- abortion history (in 45% of cases in nulliparous women to 35 years), cesarean section, cholecystectomy, appendectomy
- in 10% of cases, the primary risk factor is giperpolimenoreya - menstrual disorders with prolonged uterine bleeding, painful periods - dysmenorrhoea
some sources indicate such risk factors:
- use intrauterine contraception - 8% of
- use of hormonal contraception - 16%
- somatic diseases - 16%
- obesity - 15%
- diseases of the cardiovascular system, thyroid, 12%
- urinary tract 21%
- digestive organs 21%
- benign cervical diseases - in 50,9% of cases
- chronic inflammation of the uterus, most of the uterus - 49, 1%
- uterine fibroids in 30% of cases
- dishormonal changes in the mammary glands in 18% of cases
- endometrial hyperplasia 6%
- endometriosis, uterine 39%,
- primaryinfertility 19%
corpus luteum cyst - what is it?
Once ovulation has occurred, the egg yield and rupture of the follicle in the ovary forms the corpus luteum, in which the production of progesterone for pregnancy.But when pregnancy does not occur, with normal genital corpus luteum dissolves.If any violations, the corpus luteum is not lost, and filled with blood and fluid, thus forming a tumor.How to treat the corpus luteum cyst?It does not require any treatment and for 2 months, should dissolve, in some cases, the gynecologist may prescribe birth control pills, which contribute to a more rapid resorption of it.
, however, is very rare, but there are times when the corpus luteum cyst grows to a diameter of 7 cm, and torn or twisted, it may occur after sexual intercourse or after strenuous exercise.Then the woman in need of urgent surgical intervention, since such a situation could be life threatening - increased body temperature, pain in the stomach, there is an acute abdominal syndrome.Read more about the treatment of the corpus luteum cyst of the right and the left ovary in our article.
Follicular ovarian cyst
Follicular, as well as the corpus luteum cyst - a neoplasm of a functional nature, only follicular formed on the site of unexploded follicle.The basis of such disorders is a hormonal crash.Follicular cysts are never large and fade on their own after sucking secretions and cystic cavity decay.
How to treat follicular ovarian cysts?When you save a cyst more than 2 months, and it is the size of 5-7 cm, therapy consists of oral contraceptives, birth control pills.In the case where the application of such a treatment does not work, and the effect of the cyst increases or does not resolve, reaches more than 10 cm, accompanied by pain, in order to avoid complications such as rupture or torsion, the issue of removing it surgically.
other dangerous types of ovarian cysts in women
All of the following types of cysts need only surgical treatment.
These cysts can be gigantic, they originate from nadyaichnikovyh appendages, so the ovaries themselves in the growth process of education are not involved.
- Endometrial cysts and ovarian mucinous
This is the most dangerous types of ovarian cysts that require immediate surgical intervention, because these tumors have a high propensity to malignancy.Endometrial cysts are composed of particles of the endometrium, the content of which is old blood.Mucinous usually multi-chamber, inside of which is a thick mucus.
- dermoid ovarian cyst
This congenital pathology in the ovary.Of the remaining stem cells as a result of violations of ontogeny may develop (but not necessarily develop) dermoid cyst, that contains hair, cartilage, bones, teeth, fat.That is the secret of a cyst - a fat, which are derivatives of the skin.She laid in utero development, at a time when there were contained stem cells that give rise to the formation of any tissue.The growth of such benign observed in girls during puberty, so when a dermoid cyst of the ovary, the treatment can only be operational, no folk remedies and medicines do not help her self-destruct.
When choosing the treatment of ovarian cysts, doctors diagnosed are guided by the nature of education, the intensity of the clinical symptoms, the risk of malignancy neoplasm, the age of the patient, as well as the fact how important it is in particular the case of preservation of reproductive function of women.
When follicular cysts and corpus luteum is a waiting game, as well as in patients with uncomplicated functional cysts - drug therapy, which consists of homeopathic treatment, vitamin (B6, B1, K, A, C), taking 2-3 menstrual cycle or two-phasemonophasic oral contraceptive.To accelerate resorption of tumors can be used folk remedies for the treatment of ovarian cysts.Also, the positive effect of providing physiotherapy, the use of acupuncture, diet, spa treatment.If the positive dynamics after treatment is not observed, it removes tumors with histological examination.
- Now this method of surgery like laparoscopy ovarian cysts are widely used.Only in cases where it is known that ovarian malignancy occurs, such an operation is excluded.This is shown only way operation - extended laparotomy with an urgent histological examination.
- Ovariectomy - a complete removal of the entire ovary, which is often combined with tubektomiey, and all together it is called adnexectomy.Adnexectomy - the removal of the appendages, ie the tubes and ovaries.
- cystectomy - the removal of the cyst, keeping the maximum healthy tissue of the ovary.Operation is husking capsule cyst from his bed, and then stored ovarian tissue and then it continues to function normally.
- ovary Wedge resection - removal of the cyst with the surrounding tissues.
- Biopsies of ovarian tissue - materialize for suspected oncology, the material is taken for histological examination.
mandatory removal affects not only dangerous cysts, such as endometrial, dermoid and mucinous, but also those that are formed at a young woman wishing to become pregnant, as during pregnancy increases the risk of twisting or neoplasm growth.With timely treatment and detection of ovarian cysts, routine operation to remove education helps in most cases, to avoid complications.