- How do you get worms?
- What are the common symptoms of worms in humans?
- Which organs can live worms?
- Symptoms of worms depending on the type of helminth
- test to determine
- possible helminthic invasion How to get rid of worms to man?
Prevalence of helminth infections in certain populations are incredibly high: among children - pinworms, among hunters - trichinosis, fishermen and fish lovers - diphyllobothriasis. The fact that many diseases, seemingly unrelated to the presence of worms in the body, can occur in the background, and because of helminthic infestation in humans - this is proved by numerous studies today, the theory of communication is especially important oncology and parasitic diseases.
Moreover, the presence of worms in humans, the symptoms do not always appear, even if there are, then disguised as other diseases of the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder and so forth. From which a person can over the years to be treated and do not know the real ca
How do you get worms?
As worms enter the human body?There are 4 main source of helminth eggs in the body:
- geohelminthiasis - through the soil (and then water), which are mature egg sets of worms that penetrate the ground in the faeces of humans or animals, as well as through direct contact with animalsand by transferring the eggs of flies on food
- contact - from person to person are transmitted such well-known and the most common worms like pinworms, it is the highest risk of infection
- Biogelmintozy - by eating raw, half-baked or lightly processed meats (pork, beef) or fish infected with helminths (sushi, barbecue, dried fish, fat-streaked meat, etc.)
- Some parasites penetrate into the body by insect bites
main mechanism of any infection is often the oral-fecal, that is,ova man just swallowed along with food, water, at least some of the worm infestation arise in the bites of infected insects.With neprozharennoe meat and raw fish is clear, but how do you get worms through contact-household and through the soil?
- A soil
After any contact with soil, sand, should not just wash your hands and thoroughly clean the nails, it is better to have a close-cropped nails, especially children.Foods that grow in the ground - vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries, mushrooms, everything related to the land requires a thorough washing under running water and scalded with boiling water.Pets, especially dogs and cats of all, walking on the street, brought into the house a lot of impurities, and children playing with them are subject to the maximum risk of infection, the animal can easily infect it any helminth species.Flies are also major carriers of worms, while in public toilets, where live cattle farm, the flies and then quietly sit down for food, carrying an egg on its wings and legs.
- from person to person
If pinworm infection of others is very easy.When the female pinworm crawls out of the bowel night, she lays about 5000 eggs near the anus, what causes severe itching, itchy kid combing the place, shatters their hands, nails, panties, bed linen.Not washing your hands immediately, on all subjects, which it touches are hundreds of eggs - door handles, clothes, food, toys.Then clear the infection process at the hands of another child or adult who uses these objects also deposited eggs, and without washing their hands before eating, they fall into the mouth healthy person.
- A water
huge number of ova gets into open water in well water.Therefore, those who live in rural areas or in the country, should use antibacterial filter and be sure to boil the water, it is also dangerous to swallow water when swimming in open water.
Everyone knows that the worms is mainly a problem of children.Firstly, because they are most susceptible to developing helminthiasis as protective barriers to the child's body is not formed adequately, stomach acidity lower than that of an adult.Secondly kids of preschool age, mastering the world, trying all the surrounding objects are not only hands, but also the taste.Both parents with good intentions, can teach your child to strict compliance with rules of personal hygiene, without reminders, only to 3-6 years, which is at risk of infection (pinworms) are not only the baby, but also all members of the family.
It should be remembered that no worms can not be fruitful and multiply in the human body, each species has its own period of time, after which they die, for example, the pinworm is only a few weeks, ascarids about a year.Deferred adults of eggs must come out of the body or with the feces, or (in the case of pinworms) on the skin near the anus, the external environment, the soil, and only then matured outside the body and getting into it again, they start to become more activeand parasite.Since
breed worms in the human body can not increase the number of adults in the gut already infected person, it is only possible when re-infection, when the eggs again fall through the mouth into the body.That is, if we exclude the re-infection, which is only possible when not subject to stringent hygiene rules and certain preventive measures in case of pinworms, for example, a person might have to get rid of worms in 3-4 weeks without any treatment (see.pinworms in adults, treatment, symptoms).But it is not so easy to observe these rules babies and children of primary school age.
What are the common symptoms of worms in humans?
One of the most striking symptoms, signs of worms in humans is - dramatic weight loss, pale skin (anemia), haggard look, as well as itching in the anus.But this is only the most obvious and popular features, known to all who come in with a massive infection.However, there are many other symptoms that a person perceives the manifestation of other diseases and going to the doctor, often unsuccessfully treats them, not knowing the indirect cause of their occurrence or aggravation.
- disorders of the gastrointestinal function tract
If helminths, are located in the intestine, and not in the tissues and organs of the body, the main signs of the presence of worms in humans are violations of the gastrointestinal tract functions, such as constant diarrhea, chronic constipation, nausea or periodicvomiting, abdominal pain, especially around the navel, in the right upper quadrant pain, flatulence (bloating).These symptoms are the presence of worms in humans and may be mild, and be more intense and prolonged, it depends on the massiveness of infection or re-infestation (self-infection).Some types of worms recovered in the growth hormone-like substances that cause diarrhea, and in a massive growth of large worms may partially overlap the intestines, causing constipation.
- disorders of the nervous system and general malaise
During their livelihoods worms secrete a lot of toxic substances, and the stronger the infection, the symptoms of intoxication appear intense, negative effect on the nervous system of children and adults.
This is manifested by headache, dizziness, combined with nausea - in these cases, the person may perceive it as a migraine and treat this pain medication (see migraine, symptoms, treatment, and triptans for migraine.).Also, there may be pain in the joints, the body temperature rises to subfebrile or even fever.
also a lack of vitamins and nutrients, which deprives a person of helminthiasis, in combination with inhibition of the nervous system lead to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome, constant sleepiness and weakness, there is anemia, children can become more moody, irritable, have disturbed sleepmaybe insomnia (see. how quickly sleep), cries at night, nightmares, because of the distraction and inattention children may fall behind in their studies.
- Allergic reactions and skin manifestations
worms If a person is deteriorating condition of the skin.Life Products worms desensitize the body and are the reason that they like proteins are perceived as allergens, which is manifested by skin reactions.Eruptions on the skin - the result of the release of histamine from mast cells and the accumulation of the liquid portion of the blood in the tissue with a partial uplift of the epidermis.For the same reasons, can occur and various allergic reactions, both local - hives, itching, and overall - allergic rhinitis, dry cough, bronchial asthma.In worms infected person, can be a symptom of lamination nails, brittle hair and nails, cracked heels.
- Reduced immunity and as a consequence the development of infectious diseases
Such toxic effects, as well as the deprivation of a person of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals, leads to a significant reduction in host immunity.This may manifest or exacerbation of existing chronic diseases or start various inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx - sinusitis, sinusitis, stomatitis (stomatitis in children, disease in adults), even in girls and women may develop a variety of inflammatory processes in the genital organs - vulvovaginitis, bacterial vaginosis(selection with the smell of fish), even inflammation of the uterus in girls is probably due to the long helminthic invasion pinworms.(Cm. Pinworms in children symptoms).
is believed that snoring and gnashing of teeth at night are also a symptom of worms in humans, however, this is only speculation.
Which organs can live worms?
Depending on where in the body they are located helminths are divided into:
Coelomic worms occupy mostly small and large intestines of man, there are almost 100 different species of helminths, which live in different parts of the intestine.Such species as roundworm, hookworm, tapeworm wide, localized in the small intestine, and pinworms, dwarf tapeworm - in the lower third of the small intestine, whipworm lives in the colon.
Fabric helminth infections - do not live in the gut and in the tissues and organs of the human body in the muscles, lungs (paragonimiasis), brain (cysticercosis), liver (hydatid disease), and even lymphatic vessels (filariasis), etc.. Ascaris apply to the luminal and to tissue, as in the primary stage of development, they may form in the blood affect any organ larvae (see. Ascaris, symptoms, treatment).Symptoms
worms depending on the kind of helminth
symptoms of helminthiasis directly dependent on the species of the parasite, its location in the body and intensity of infection.How quickly there are signs of worms after infection?Thus, for example, already 2-3 days after infection with Ascaris, a person may experience worsening of overall health, in most cases, other types of helminthiasis infection - the first symptoms of worms in humans appear after 2-3 weeks, and diseases such as filariasis have incubationperiod of 6- 18 months.
risk of infection with intestinal worms is that in the presence of a single individual in the intestine, helminthiasis often asymptomatic.Any symptoms may only appear when huge amounts worm, for example, or a tapeworm Ascaris, or when a massive infection.
Pinworms or enterobiosis - other than typical, the main features of any helminthiasis, the most characteristic symptoms enterobiosis - is itching in the anus, worse at night.Also factor in the presence of a small amount of pinworms is the frequency of the itching, if it occurs only 1-2 days, and then passed through a couple of weeks repeated.This is an important sign of the presence of pinworms, itching can be more constant with strong infestation.
Trichuriasis, ancylostomiasis, diphyllobothriasis, schistosomiasis - contribute to the development of vitamin deficiency and anemia, as helminth venom secreted by their metabolic products, greatly alter the intestinal microflora, causing intestinal dysbiosis, contributing to proliferation of opportunistic microorganisms.
Ascaris - ascaridosis symptoms depend on the phase of development of worms, if this initial phase, when larvae blood migrate to the lungs and other organs, the bot appears first low grade fever, malaise, dry cough with muco-purulent sputum, possibly evenblood, lung X-ray within 1-2 weeks appear volatile infiltrates, which then disappear.In a high percentage of blood tests eosinophils, allergic reactions occur.In severe infestations may develop bronchitis with fits of suffocation, pneumonia.In the late phase 2 - intestinal, has lead to abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract function.Ascaris release substances that neutralize human digestive enzymes - pepsin and trypsin, which are essential for digestion of proteins, so when people ascariasis much thinner.Complications of ascariasis may be jaundice, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, acute appendicitis.
Almost all helminth infections are characterized by central nervous system disorders - headaches, dizziness, irritability, fatigue.
trichinosis - often manifested by muscle pain, fever, swelling of the face and eyelids
Fasciolosis, opistorhoz, clonorchiasis - Trematodozy liver, appear appearance of jaundice syndrome (see the symptoms and causes of jaundice.), And enlargement of the spleen, liver,pancreatitis, neurological disorders, holetsistoholangitom, pathologies of the digestive tract.
Strongyloidiasis - characterized by a large variety of symptoms - and allergic reactions, and biliary tract disease, and diarrheal disorders.
Urinary schistosomiasis - diuretic causes disorder, manifested release of blood at the end of urination.
test to determine possible helminthic invasion
To check possible worm infestation, you can count the number of positive responses to the following signs of the emergence of worms in the human body:
- periodically or permanently is itching in the anus
- There rashesskin
- headache Often, dizziness
- sometimes nausea or nausea, vomiting
- swelling Often, bloating, constipation, diarrhea
- Restless sleep, insomnia, cries in her sleep
- swollen legs (reason)
- Allergicreaction - hives, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic cough
- enlarged lymph nodes
- there are abdominal pain, self-stoped
- Sometimes the bitterness in the mouth
- fatigue, constant tiredness
- work in child care or a family has childrenpreschool
- Sometimes unmotivated fever
- yellowing of the skin and mucous
- Work related with animals, or having pets
- there are muscle and joint pain without load
- you snore or grind their teeth at night
- Love to eat meatwith blood, dried fish, fat-streaked meat, sushi
- reduce your weight due to lower or vice versa increase appetite
- you often eat raw fruits, vegetables, herbs, berries, not mytymi or scalded with boiling water before drinking
at 7 positive responses - risk of helminthic infestation exists, with 15 or more positive responses - very likely helminthiasis and should see a doctor infectious diseases and parasitology, pass three feces on eggs of worms, a common blood test, a blood test for giardiasis, scraping on enterobiosis (three times).Read also worms in children, symptoms and treatment, where you can learn in detail about the manifestations of all kinds of parasitic infestations and Pinworms in adults, symptoms, treatment.