- kinds of worms that infect humans
- How is the infection and why?
- Common signs of helminths in the body
- What pinworms symptoms in children
- Signs ascaridosis the child
- Signs of other parasitic infestations in children
- How to bring the worms in a child?
- prevention of parasitic infestations in children
most common diseases in children, especially young children - a helminth infections.One in three people in Europe struck by helminths.Only official data on Russia announce the numbers of the order of 2 million cases of worm infestation in the population.According to many experts, but also by the number of anthelmintic drugs sold annually, this figure is much higher than the official, and is 22 million people, with 80% of them are children.Total known 342 species of worms and only 70 of them hit the Russians more often.When there are worms in children, the symptoms are not always vivid and specific, accurately indicating that the child is infected with parasites.How to deter
kinds of worms that infect humans
All kinds of helminth parasites in the human body is divided into 3 groups:
- Round worms or nematodes - the most frequent intestinal worms in children - is pinworm (eneterobioz), roundworm (ascariasis), whipworm(trichocephalosis), Trichinella (trichinosis)
- flat, ribbon worms and cestodes - solitaire or bovine tapeworm (beef tapeworm infection), rat or dwarf tapeworm (hymenolepiasis), pork tapeworm (taeniasis) ehinokkok, tapeworm a (diphyllobothriasis)
- flukes or worms-sosalschiki - Siberian cat and fluke (opistorhoz), liver fluke (fascioliasis), paragonimiasis, schistosomiasis, etc.
also, these parasites can be a gut that is a parasite in the gut and extraintestinal, ie in other organs. -liver, lung, gall bladder, muscle, heart and brain.They can invade any organ with blood.
How is the infection and why?
Main worm infestation in Russia and Ukraine account for nematodes, ie, roundworm and pinworm, whipworm rarely.Infection with the rest of tapeworms and flukes is only 2-5% of all reported cases of helminth infections, because that infected most often occurs on or after travel to an exotic tropical and subtropical countries, or in the use of insufficiently roasted meat, contact with infected animals, as well as gross violationsanitary rules and the rules of personal hygiene.Of this group, most often infected broad tapeworm by eating bad fried river fish.
Infection with pinworms and ascarids occurs exclusively at non-observance of hygiene, not thoroughly wash hands before eating, after walking or toilet, when receiving plant foods - vegetables, fruits, herbs, poorly washed with water, after contact with animals, as well as by contact with an infecteda child or an adult.
In cases of pinworms, other than one-time infection is very high risk of re-infestation, that is, self-infection, when after scratching itchy anus, arms, underwear settle thousands of eggs, then in everything that concerns the child (door handles. Clothing,items, toys) are the eggs of pinworms, and infecting others, and the media itself pinworms.
preschool kids learn about the world around them, while tasting almost everything that surrounds and falls into their hands.Therefore, kindergartens, children's playgrounds in the streets, playrooms in children's and shopping malls - are a breeding ground for a maximum of pinworms.Moreover, children are more susceptible to helminthes, as they are still imperfect gastrointestinal protective barriers, clearly and without reminders observe personal hygiene to parents unable to accustom the baby somewhere in the 4-6 years.
not unimportant fact that such intensive development of parasitic diseases in children is not perfect diagnosis of parasitic infestations.In the presence of worms in children, the symptoms may be transient, not clearly marked, so often parents are seeing deterioration in health of the child, can not establish the true cause of ill health.
fact that for example when pinworms, scraping on enterobiosis, often false negative, the female pinworm crawls out every day from the intestine to lay eggs, and the likelihood of early detection of this helminthiasis is not great.Only with a massive infection and long-term re-infestation one time scraping can reveal pinworms.Therefore, in cases of suspected eneterobioz, recommended numerous scrapes at least 3 in a day, and even after 2 weeks.
So, what increases the risk of infection with ascarids and pinworms in children:
- If a child does not wash every time your hands after using the toilet, after visiting the street, just before the meal, even in the small snack
- If underwear rarely changes, it is desirable to produce a change of 2 times a day, is particularly important morning linen
- If the baby is pulling in the mouth, toys, pencils, or other objects, has the habit of nail biting, thumb sucking, etc.
- have pets -. dogs, cats -increases the risk of helminthic invasion, as the wool can be worm eggs
- If a child is rarely trimmed fingernails
- If no reception habits thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables, salads, herbs just before eating
- If the apartment, private house largecluster flies and cockroaches, unsanitary conditions
residence Common symptoms of the presence of worms in the body
not all types of worms can cause a noticeable, measurable symptoms, there are parasites, which for years may be in the body does not prove itself and become active only in thelowered immunity host.Back in the 80's by a theory that in the occurrence of many diseases of internal organs.until Oncology, it is guilty parasites.
Virtually every person is a carrier of a variety of bacterial and viral infections of helminths, which gradually parasitizing and existing at the expense of the owner, lead to certain diseases throughout his life.The fact that the body is the intoxication of vital activity of various parasites, we can say that some of the common worms symptoms are observed, both in children and adults:
- sharp increase in appetite, excessive salivation, but the man at the same time lose weight, or vice versa,lack of appetite, nausea
- Dizziness, headache, and sometimes nausea, constipation or diarrhea, recurrent abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
- appearance of various allergic reactions
- Brittle hair and nails (on the background of the development of iron deficiency and vitamin B12)
- The frequent occurrence of various inflammatory diseases of the nose and throat, the genitals, sinusitis, sinusitis, nasal polyps, adenoids in children.
- When helminthic invasion into the host blood to a lot of toxins which act primarily on the nervous system of the child, so the occurrence of irritability, sleep disturbances, anger, attention, concentration loss and loss of perseverance, can also be symptoms of worms in the child
- Whenoccurrence of anemia and eosinophilia, be sure to check your child for possible worm infestations.Even with the increased appetite helminth infections can lead to growth retardation and retardation in the child
- development Often, after prophylactic vaccination in children with worms, a symptom of their presence may be the appearance of toxic and allergic reactions
What pinworms symptoms in children
Pinworms -small, not more than 1 cm. helminths causing enterobiasis diseases.pinworm eggs can be stored on toys, clothes, household items, door handles, which touched an infected person.They are quite viable in the environment, not susceptible to all disinfectants, but quickly killed by boiling and the action of ultraviolet radiation.The eggs enter the body orally, then settle in the intestine, where it forms a larvae that grow into adults, this must be only 2 weeks and the female is ready to postpone fresh eggs.What are the symptoms of worms in children - pinworms?
For enetrobioza very revealing sign is itching in the anus, which often disturbs the children at night, by warmth and relaxation of the baby under a blanket.At this time, the female pinworm crawls easy to anus and lays on the skin near the anus up to 5000 eggs.Severe irritation and itching, allow the eggs to get under the child's fingernails on your hands, clothes, bed linen.Next, mechanism of infection is obvious.Therefore, when eneterobioze, the main symptom of infection with intestinal worms in children, is itching, scratching the anus, as well as:
- Itching in the anus at night leads to restless sleep, screams, vorochaniyu kid, disturbing dreams, insomnia
- Symptoms of worms in children are always characterized by a weight loss or poor weight gain
- children quickly get tired, begin to be capricious, becoming overly excitable, restless, may fall behind in their studies, become inattentive
- girls additional symptom is enuresis as crawling andirritating the urethra, involuntary urination can occur in a dream - it is a signal for the parents to check the child for enterobiosis
- pinworms can also penetrate into the vagina, causing vulvovaginitis, there is an opinion.that they are able to reach and fallopian tubes, causing inflammation of the uterine appendages, recording in the genitals infection
- Also in the cluster in the cecum of a large number of pinworms may develop acute appendicitis
- One of the assumptions that symptoms of worms in a young child may begnashing of teeth at night
- intestinal dysbiosis, lingering enetrokolit, constipation, diarrhea (see cure for diarrhea.), pain in the abdomen near the navel, nausea - as satellites enterobiosis
- Long invasion help reduce the absorption of nutrients, vitamins, trace elements, which reduceshemoglobin, immunity, kids begin to frequent and prolonged ache
- Vital functions of pinworms cause toxic poisoning of the whole organism, and more massive and longer the invasion, the greater the toxicity, manifested by weakness, weight loss, headaches, dizziness, nausea.
more information about pinworms in children, symptoms and treatment in our article.
Signs ascaridosis the child
If only the registered cases of detection of various intestinal worms in children laboratory methods, according to statistics it turns out that 80% of children up to 5 years, or were anthelmintic therapy or require it now.It is impossible to perceive as a worm infestation is not a serious problem, because of the growing organism, the presence of persistent toxins poison the body, and the worms themselves deprive it of nutrients, and sometimes lead to serious injury to internal organs.
One hazardous helminthiasis is ascariasis - with strong infestations, these parasites can affect any organ of the human body - the lungs, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, heart and brain.Infection occurs Ascaris eggs that are found in the soil, that is, again, non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, with frequent contact with soil, sand, with poor washing greens, vegetables, berries, if the mass of flies in the room man.
After swallowing of eggs within 3 months there is migration of the larvae of the small intestine by the blood to all organs, most often they get into the lungs, liver, heart.At the same time, a child may be a low-grade fever, fever up to 38C, weakness, malaise, dry cough with orange sputum, or even mixed with blood, at this time on the X-ray light can be detected by "volatile" infiltrates, ie during the x-ray in a fewdays significantly their movement, and the child may appear obstructive bronchitis or bronchial asthma, pleurisy or pneumonia.
Children at a primary phase of ascariasis can increase the lymph nodes, increased spleen, liver.The hallmark symptom of the presence of worms in the child is the appearance of skin allergic reactions, urticaria, most often on the hands and feet, and various allergic dermatoses.
3 months after infection, in late intestinal phase, when out of the lungs with phlegm, swallowed a child, roundworm come again into the intestine, there dyspepsia, ie different dysfunction of gastrointestinal - cramping abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, redness of the anus, nausea, sometimes vomiting, sudden weight loss, flatulence.Immunosuppression with prolonged infestation leads to various infectious processes -retsidiviruyuschie stomatitis in children with purulent diseases of skin and mucous membranes, etc.
Like any invasion ascariasis poisoning the body, exerting a toxic effect on the nervous system, which is manifested by various neuro-psychiatric disorderschildren - insomnia, nightmares, seizures, etc. Rarely, but there are symptoms such as photophobia, increased pupil, drop in blood pressure, complications of ascariasis can be very serious -. acute appendicitis, peritonitis, ileus, jaundice.
more on roundworm, symptoms and treatment in our article.
Signs of other parasitic infestations
Trichuriasis or whipworm - most often occurs malosimptomno may periodically occur dyspepsia, abdominal distention, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, can develop anemia, against intoxication young children behind in mentaland physical development.
hymenolepiasis or dwarf, rat tapeworm - no different than any characteristic symptoms in children, these worms also cause gastrointestinal rasstroystvam- nausea, loss of appetite, heartburn, constipation and diarrhea change, abdominal pain, excessive salivation, increasedfatigue, headache, dizziness, rash, bronchospasm, vasomotor, allergic rhinitis.
Opisthorchiasis or cat, the Siberian fluke - the child may have low-grade fever, skin rashes, and various allergic reactions (in the blood increased eosinophils, anemia, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) constant catarrhal syndrome, swollen lymph nodes, liver, pain in the right upper quadrant painjoints, disorders of the digestive tract, pancreatitis, gastritis, unstable stool, constipation, in severe cases, pneumonia, hepatitis, changes in myocardial dystrophic character.
Toksokaroz - transmitted by dogs, cats, most commonly affects children up to 4 years, with constant contact with infected animals.It is very pronounced allergic reactions - allergic cough, dyspnea, itchy skin rash, periodic fever, puffiness of the face, pulmonary infiltrates, joint disease, swollen lymph nodes, the liver may develop toksokaroznogo oftalmita, keratitis, chorioretinitis, until irreversibledamage to eyes.
broad tapeworm - diphyllobothriasis is caused by tapeworm Diofillobotrium latum.Infection occurs through undercooked s neprozharennoe fish.Clinic - non-specific gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, allergy, 12-deficiency anemia.
How to bring a child of worms
Today, there are enough very effective anthelmintic funds, which have a pronounced effect, but they have a toxic effect and should be given only by the attending physician, preferably a doctor -parazitologom, diagnosed on the basis of helminthiasis.Each drug has its own specific activity for a particular type of worms, some drugs have a broad spectrum of action.
addition anthelmintic treatment, the doctor may also prescribe antihistamines to reduce allergic reactions, in this article there is a list of the most efficient and safe modern tablets from allergies (Tsetrin, Zodak, Loratadine, Zyrtec, which are in suspensions, and drops for children 2