- How are roundworm?
- As roundworm -prichiny enter the body, ways of infection of ascariasis
- symptoms in children and adults
- How to roundworm - diagnostic options
- As roundworm bring in children and adults
- Consequences, complications of Ascaris in children
Ascaris - are round worms, parasites, not only in the human intestine, but also in virtually all organs - the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, nasopharynx, liver, brain and even the heart.This parasitic disease occurs when infection of children and adults with poor personal hygiene.During the multiplication of roundworm symptoms in children and adults manifested by fever, general malaise, dry cough, a violation of of the gastrointestinal tract, local allergic reactions, sudden weight loss.Diagnosis of this helminthiasis is the analysis of a feces on eggs of worms, serological tests, blood count, as well as adults are often found at the X-ray of lungs or intestines.When roundworm treatment is received anthelmi
How are roundworm?
Adults roundworm - it is a large roundworms, whose length reaches males 15-25 cm, females 20-40 cm human Ascaris white and pink fusiform..These helminth eggs may be in the soil, water on plant products.Ascariasis Transmitted from person to person by the fecal-oral route, but not directly, but through the soil, in which there are helminth eggs, as well as through water, food containing mature eggs of Ascaris.The most likely to be infected children, adults registered ascariasis less.
This parasitic disease is prevalent in all climatic zones, except for deserts, high mountains and permafrost.
According to the World Health Organization, there are about one billion people are carriers of ascariasis.
However, the most prevalent form of helminthiasis has a tropical and subtropical zone, where up to 80% of the population struck by Ascaris, symptoms, treatment of this disease can be very varied, depending on the stage of migration and further localization of the colony of worms.
As roundworm enter the body - causes, ways of infection
host and source of infection that helminthic invasion is a human.With human patient faeces fall into the soil ascarid eggs, where it may be several years before it maturing larval dangerous, but they are not viable in the external environment.In the soil, when there are favorable conditions - humidity, heat + 24C, oxygen saturation - the eggs mature and become ready for life in the human body.First of all, when in contact with soil and water or use of unwashed fruits and vegetables, eggs hand shatters these helminths and people not respecting the rules of personal hygiene can be a victim of infection of ascariasis.
Therefore, most cases of ascariasis is recorded among young children who have not yet accustomed to improving the enforcement of the rules of hygiene, as well as in rural areas with adverse living conditions.Particularly high risk of infection in summer and autumn, when children and adults occurs most contact with grass, ground, in a children's sandbox, playgrounds, using unboiled water or washed products - herbs, berries, and vegetables.
Once in the intestines full of mature eggs, the larvae are formed, through which the mucous membrane, penetrate into the portal vein, from where they can continue to move in almost any body - the right ventricle of the heart, liver, bronchi, lungs, gallbladder.After migrating larva enters the lungs with sputum expectoration when they are again in the small intestine, where they are to grow to an adult sexually mature roundworm.
This is called an early stage of the disease and the migration lasts for a period of about 3 months, then in the late stage of intestinal when gut parasites are already adults, 1 female per day can lay up to 250 000 eggs, which are excreted in the faeces.Mature individuals live for about a year, and then dies.Generation of new larvae of Ascaris in the body can not develop because the eggs require soil, land for maturing, so even without a treating roundworm in the body die in a year, if a person is infected again.
main rules to be followed so as not to catch Ascaris:
- when working with soil, use rubber gloves
- Thoroughly wash the vegetables, herbs,
- berries Frequent contact with the earth to have a close-croppednails
- wash hands thoroughly after street, before any meal, even in front of a light snack
- teach children from an early age to take nothing in his mouth, but food, and clean hands
symptoms of ascariasis in children and adults
What can disturb the person after infection, what are the symptoms of Ascaris that distinguish from other diseases?Clinical symptoms of Ascaris in both children and adults are directly dependent on the intensity of infection, parasites localization, and the phase of the development of Ascaris:
- first migration phase
During this phase in the cycle of roundworm, adult symptoms can be mildsevere and often take place without complications.In varying degrees of severity can be general malaise, low-grade body temperature, usually does not rise more than 38C, there is a dry cough with mucopurulent sputum or mucous, bronchial secretions color may be orange streaked with blood.
Sometimes tapped mokrovatye or dry wheezing or shortening of the percussion sound can also be dry or exudative pleurisy.When the X-ray light detected "volatile" infiltrates - round, round, star-shaped, polygonal, scalloped.They may be multiple and single, and in one, and both lungs.
If there is not intense, a small roundworm infection in children can occur malosimptomno, were obliterated.Rarely, when a massive entry of eggs into the body, even in children the migration phase may be accompanied by significant symptoms of intoxication, thus can increase the lymph nodes, fever up to 38 ° C, headache, enlargement of the liver, spleen.
very hallmark of ascariasis in this phase of larval migration, is the appearance of skin allergic reactions, urticaria occurs most often in the feet and hands, as well as allergic dermatitis.
Therefore eosinophils in the blood can reach 30-40%, it is found together with pulmonary infiltrates, and possible slight periodic leukocytosis, ESR is usually kept in the normal range (see. The causes of elevated ESR).
changes in the lungs are stored for approximately 2-3 weeks, then disappear, there are cases that infiltrates detected again in a few months or longer stored.In children, there is often an obstruction of the bronchi.
- Late phase - parasitism in intestines
This phase is called intestinal, and after re-entering the small intestine, roundworm lead to symptoms of dyspepsia, when diarrhea is replaced by constipation, there flatulence, appear even cholera, dysentery symptoms, or signs of typhoid feverhowever, in such cases to reduce background immunity may arise from a combination of infectious diseases ascarids.
In the late phase of ascariasis children often complain of abdominal pain, nausea, sometimes vomiting, lack of appetite, lose weight rapidly, very quickly get tired, looking exhausted and sick.Abdominal pain is localized to the right or in the iliac region, or near the navel, cramping in nature, may appear redness and itching in the anus.
of the nervous system is often pronounced asthenic-neurotic syndrome - hysterical attacks, nightmares, disturbing dreams, throwing in his sleep, moans, cries, insomnia, meningismus, epileptiform convulsions.Frequent symptoms of Ascaris are extremely quick mental fatigue, dizziness, headache.
very rare, but there are cases of the appearance of changes in the eye - photophobia, increased pupil, amblyopia, anisocoria.Many patients experience a drop in blood pressure.Sometimes the presence of Ascaris causes children to develop asthma or frequent bronchitis, blood tests due to exhaustion, reduce assimilation of trace elements, vitamins, there is anemia and eosinophils coming to normal.
With the development of Ascaris in children, the symptoms listed above are often compounded by recurrent stomatitis (see. Stomatitis in children), purulent diseases of the mucous membranes, skin.Ascaris infestation leads to a significant decrease in immunity, so the children can hardly, long hurt by various infectious diseases.
Complications that can cause infestation Ascaris, related to their physical activity through the gut wall, during the migration, they are mechanically traumatize her.When massive infection may lead to the through hole in the intestine - perforations and entering the cecum, may lead to the development of acute appendicitis in adults or in children appendicitis.
In severe cases of severe infestation, when zapolzaniya ascarids in the biliary tract, biliary colic may develop, purulent cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), the development of jaundice, granulomatous hepatitis with hepatosplenomegaly, liver abscess, peritonitis, and the development of intestinal obstruction.
The medical literature describes the clinical cases where a massive invasion led to the fact that the worms crawling in the throat, sinuses, airways, leading to suffocation and roundworm found in the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle of the heart, and even the human brain.
How to identify roundworm - diagnostic options
Complete blood count - leukocytosis, and eosinophilia, chest X-ray -infiltraty, sputum smear microscopy - Detection of larvae.At a late stage of intestinal (about 3 months after infection), when the larvae have already become sexually mature worms - anemia without significant leukocytosis may slight eosinophilia, fecal - red blood cells, the remnants of undigested food, eggs of worms or roundworm themselves.
In rare cases, already adults are found in the intestinal lumen of the intestine with X-ray contrast agent, or x-rays of light, as well as during endoscopic examination of FGS.X-rays can help in the diagnosis of Ascaris migration phase, when a small gap is a few shots in a few days, a comparison of the X-ray can enable trace the "movement" infiltrates.If this phenomenon is combined with eosinophilia - this is a significant argument in favor of the diagnosis of ascariasis.
As roundworm bring in children and adults
When roundworm diagnosis, treatment appointed the doctor, taking into account the weight of the child or adult.as well as the severity of infection.To date, worming medications have high potency and efficacy of the treatment of Ascaris in children and adults is 80-100%.
The migration phase, and children and adults on a mandatory basis are assigned pills for worms antinematodnoy broad spectrum of activity, these include:
- Levamisole - Dekaris trade name of the drug (70-90 rubles)
- mebendazole - Vermoxum (80-120rubles), Vero mebendazole, Vormin 20 rubles, Termoks, Vermakar, Mebeks
- thiabendazole -.. antiparasitic agent Arbotekt, Mintezol, Tetusim, Tektite, Trezaderm, Mertekt
- the presence of obstructive broncho-pulmonary manifestations appointed corticosteroids and bronchodilators.
If worms are found in the intestinal stage - roundworm treated with such drugs:
- Dekaris - once at a dose according to the weight and age of the patient
- pyrantel pamoate - Kombantrin, Gelmintoks (80-120 p.), Nemotsid, Pyrantel(30-50r) also once
- Piperazine - has a less pronounced effect was 10-30 rubles.
- mebendazole - Vermoxum, Vero mebendazole, Vormin, Termoks, Vermakar, Mebeks
After taking the drugs after a few days can be assigned to chelators such as Polyphepan, Polisorb, activated carbon.After treatment of Ascaris a month check-up is required to show an adult or a child.More about all other medicines for worms for children, which can be used for children up to 2 or 3 years older in this article.
Consequences, complications of Ascaris in children
Because roundworm larvae during migration can cause mechanical damage, it is dangerous, especially for children not strong body.They may be damaged as blood vessels and various organs, accompanied by little or severe hemorrhages leading to ulcerations, necrosis, perforation lung, liver, and intestines.
Moreover, with the growth of larvae and adults, they deplete the body by sucking nutrients and their metabolic products, have a strong allergic and toxic effects on the body.
If time does not carry out the treatment of roundworm in children, such parasitic infestation leads to sensitization of the general body, develop pronounced local allergic reactions (urticaria) or general (asthmatic dyspnea, obstructive bronchitis).Ascaris in children and in adults lead to the development of intestinal dysbiosis, suppressed immune system, weakened immune response to various infections.
When a massive infection, complications can be significant, resulting in spastic or mechanical obstruction of the intestinal lumen, bile duct, can develop ileus, cholecystitis, acute appendicitis, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice.