Osteoporosis causes and symptoms , the first symptoms of

See also:

  • Treatment of osteoporosis with modern methods of treatment of osteoporosis
  • folk remedies


Osteoporosis develops quickly, often without the presence of subjective symptoms, and diagnosed with fractures have occurred.

Osteoporosis - the loss of bone mineral density due to calcium loss.The disease is a highly topical issue, which is of importance is the fourth in a series of non-communicable diseases, after cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and has the features of "the silent epidemic".

These individual experts say that at the current rate of increase in the number of people with osteoporosis, by the middle of the XXI century.the disease will be a mass epidemic.

Definition

disease Today there is a clear definition of the term "osteoporosis".It implies that it is not isolated, and progressive systemic metabolic (exchange) skeletal disease characterized by low bone density and a violation of their microarchitectonics.The study of the causes of the disease, its mechanism of

development and the effects it possible to add another definition of e, and such a thing as a decrease in bone strength, resulting in an increased risk of fractures.Durability is an integral component of bone mineral density, its architectonic, the quantity and quality of collagen and other

Thus, osteoporosis is characterized by:

  • pathological changes in the structure of bones.
  • prevalence of decay and destruction of the bone tissue at its regeneration;
  • as a result - decrease bone mass, an increase in bone fragility and decrease their strength.

Statistics

in Europe, Japan and the United States suffer from osteoporosis 75 million people, one third of which -. Women older than 50 years, every 4 th of them deformation of at least one vertebra was found.. In America, 10 million people suffer from osteoporosis, 8 million of them -. Women.80% of women older than 50 years and almost all men and women older than 75 years are afflicted with this disease.

Although osteoporosis is not recognized by the Russian Federation socially significant disease, nevertheless show some statistics about its health and socio-economic importance, which were published in early 2013, in an article on the results of the summit on Osteoporosis, held at the end of 2012,St. Petersburg.The reports on the results of epidemiological studies conducted in the same year in several Russian cities, noted that:

  • prevalence of osteoporosis among people older than 50 years is an average of 28%;
  • such complication as hip fracture as a result of light load, met before only in old age, it became common in women after age 40, and in 2 - 4 times more often than men;
  • mortality in the first year of life after intra-articular fracture of the tibia in osteoporosis - 20 - 35%;
  • every minute in Russia recorded 17 fractures of the lower limbs and 5 vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis, and every 5 minutes - a fracture of the upper femur, which is accompanied by disability and high mortality.

These figures show the need to improve the quality of early detection and taking measures for the prevention of active disease.

especially important awareness of the early signs and symptoms of osteoporosis of the spine and joints, that in most cases - it is one of the manifestations of the aging of the whole organism.More than 200 million. People suffer this social disease.The more developed society is, the more cases of osteoporosis.Prevent it is impossible, but with knowledge about the mechanisms of the disease and contributing factors, we can postpone, slow its progression and to avoid severe complications.

Physiological processes

Bone is a complex system in which lifelong updates occur, the internal restructuring, changes in the length, thickness, width, that is shaping its tissue (remodeling).The meaning of remodeling is to adapt to the changing properties of bone stress and environmental conditions.

All these processes mean constant resorption, destruction of bone by osteoclasts cells and restore it with the participation of osteoblasts.Osteoblasts synthesize bone fibers regulate entry of calcium ions into the tissue, subsequently turning into mature bone cells.

constant physiological disruption is accompanied by the release into the blood from the bone calcium tissue and restoration of micro - reverse transition minerals.

to 25 years predominance of recovery over the destruction takes place about 25 years, then set their relative balance.
35-40 years From 35 - 40 years of age comes the reverse process, in which bone mass is lost annually by 0.3 - 0.5%.
60-70 years Women physiological bone loss after menopause to 60 - 70 years of age occur at a faster rate (up to 2 - 5% per year).

Studies have shown that over the life of the outer layer of bones of women (cortical) loses up to 35%, and the plate (trabecular) - 50% of its mass.In men, the rates are 15 - 20 and 20 - 30% respectively.

Regulation remodeling processes performed thyroid hormones (calcitonin, etc.), Parathyroid hormone (PTH), pancreatic (insulin), gonads, derivatives of vitamin "D", the hormones of the adrenal cortex, pituitary, prostaglandins, and so on. D.

Classification of osteoporosis

Its development is due to the excess of the physiological rate of bone loss, which resulted in achieving a peak of bone fracture occurs.Low mineralization it might be the result of:

  • insufficient set of bone mass as a young man;
  • fast its loss later in life.

Predisposing factors

Factors contributing to inadequate accumulation of bone mass, divided into:

  • Genetic

associated with carriage of modified collagen genes, osteoprotegerin (suppresses bone destruction), as well as affecting the action of vitamin "D", which determines the absorption of calcium ions, and others;

  • Non-Genetic

including intrauterine disorders of fetal nutrition, inadequate intake of calcium the mother during pregnancy, premature birth and low weight in the first year after birth, delayed sexual development, inadequate intake of foods containing calcium, in the period before sexualmaturation.It prevents the absorption of calcium in the intestine and the accumulation in the bones of his frequent use of children in adolescence carbonated beverages ( "Fanta", "Pepsi-Cola"), kvass, chronic bowel disease, malnutrition.In addition, menstrual disorders, pregnancy, extinction of gonadal function in women (pre- and menopausal periods), decreased testicular function in men after 50 - 60 years, lead to the loss of the accumulated calcium.

So, osteoporosis caused by risk factors:

  • genetic (hereditary predisposition);
  • hormonal and age - female, endocrine dysfunction, age over 65 years;
  • internal diseases - autoimmune disorders, blood diseases, multiple myeloma, disease of the digestive and cardiovascular systems, the kidneys, obstructive lung disease (asthma, obstructive bronchitis see in adults.);
  • lifestyle - eating a low calcium content of foods, excessive or, conversely, very low body weight, physical inactivity, smoking, frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages;
  • medications (corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, some diuretics, oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants, anticoagulants (heparin), tetracyclines, and others.).
  • abuse of cosmetics, household cleaning products brings menopause in women and increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Types osteoporosis

Depending on the reasons for its initial subdivided into as a result of the natural aging of the organism, and the secondary.

Types of primary osteoporosis:
  • Idiopathic (undetermined).It can develop at any age
  • Postmenopausal (women)
  • Juvenile (teenage)
  • Osteoporosis adults
  • Senile (senile)
Types of secondary osteoporosis - is due to:
  • endocrine disorders (decrease in the synthesis of sex hormones,dysfunction of the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands).
  • connective tissue diseases (rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis).
  • blood diseases.
  • diseases of the digestive tract, contributing to disruption of calcium absorption.
  • kidney disease (Fanconi's syndrome, chronic renal failure).
  • other diseases that lead to bone destruction.

symptoms - clinical manifestations of osteoporosis

According to statistics, the symptoms of osteoporosis in women after 50 years, expressed in varying degrees, are identified in 30%, due mainly to a decrease in the synthesis of estrogen in the body.Risk of disease is the slow development of asymptomatic or in the appearance of minor symptoms, which even the doctors attributed to manifestations of the nature of the exchange arthritis.Despite the fact that arthritis and osteoporosis develop simultaneously is different diseases: osteoporosis - systemic disease.For the very first signs of osteoporosis include:

Early symptoms of osteoporosis:

  • aches, aching pain in the bones, especially when weather changes;
  • periodontitis development and change of nails;
  • fatigue, palpitation episodes;
  • early appearance of gray hair;
  • twitching leg muscles at night, especially in women.

Despite the defeat of the entire skeletal system, the main manifestations in the later stages of development related to the spine and joints.Symptoms of spinal osteoporosis associated with compression of the anterior vertebral body, leading to their wedge-shaped deformation of the upper and middle thoracic and upper lumbar spine.Fractures of individual thoracic vertebrae can occur unnoticed, accompanied by minor pain.The main symptoms of spinal injury:

  • Feeling fatigue of back muscles, dull pain, especially in the area of ​​greatest deformation of the vertebrae.Sometimes they become paroxysmal in nature.
  • Limiting mobility of the spine due to the protective reflex spasm of the back muscles.In women, osteoporosis is a sign of scoliosis curvature with progressive limitation of mobility.
  • Stoop - "suppliant posture," a violation of posture and height 5 cm in a few years, especially in fractures of the vertebrae in the middle thoracic spine.
  • Formation "senile hump."
  • Small skin folds on the lateral surface of the abdomen.

Along with the spine, the pain and the severity is felt most in the thoracic and lumbar spine, affects the head of the bone involved in the formation of large joints, mostly of the hip, knee, shoulder, rarely - small (wrist, joints of hands and feet).Perhaps bending the fingers, when they take the form of drum sticks, a curvature in the form of saber shins.

most common and threatening are the symptoms of hip osteoporosis, due to the possibility of necrosis of the head and bone fracture in the hip area.Such fractures often spontaneous (not correlate with the severity of shock or trauma), even the slightest fall can cause a fracture.

Changing posture, reduction of growth, change of the head landing characteristic of osteoporosis in women (postmenopausal).If there are fractures of the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae under static load, it is most often the result of long-term steroid therapy or metastasis of tumors from different organs, such as the stomach.

Common symptoms of osteoporosis join pain at rest, worse when walking in the area of ​​the joint and in the lumbar spine due to the strain of lumbar muscles and hip muscles and limited mobility in the hip.The effects of intra-articular fractures of the hip - disability, and sometimes more serious complications within a year after the fracture.

slowdown process of osteoporosis, prevention of complications are possible with timely treatment to the doctor, laboratory, instrumental diagnosis and advice in terms of treatment and corrective therapy.It is necessary to remember everything, especially middle-aged women.