12 August

Brain Tumor : symptoms, signs , causes, treatment , diagnosis , prognosis

brain tumor called arisen increased cell division, which consists of the brain itself, his prostate gland (the pituitary and pineal gland), its sheath, blood vessels or nerves coming out of it.The same term is called oncopathology when the tumor grows in the brain, formed from the skull bone cells or when the blood flow brought here tumor cells from other organs (usually the lungs, digestive organs and the reproductive system).

disease occurs in 15 out of 1000 patients with cancer.It can have both benign and malignant character.The difference between one type from another - in the rate of growth (malignant tumors grow faster) and the ability to send a "daughter" of the tumor (metastases) in other organs (it is characteristic only for malignant neoplasm).Germinate in the surrounding tissue and compress important brain structures may be both of them.

name comes from the brain tumor cell names that have become uncontrolled share.According to the classification in 2007 released more than 100 of their

type, which combined in a 12 "large" groups.Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor (each part of the brain has its own function), its size and type.The main treatment of pathology - surgery, but it is not always possible due to the vagueness of the boundaries between normal and abnormal tissues.But science does not stand still, and in such cases developed other methods of therapy: focused beam, radiosurgery, chemotherapy and its "young" subspecies - targeted biological therapy.

Causes tumors

In children the main cause of cancer is a violation of the structure of the genes responsible for the correct formation of the nervous system, or the appearance of one or more abnormal oncogenes that are responsible for control over the lifecycle of cells in the normal structure of DNA.Such anomalies can be congenital origin, may also occur in the brain is still immature (baby is born with is not yet fully formed, "ready" of the nervous system).

Congenital changes occur in these genes:

  • NF1 or NF2.This causes von Recklinghausen's syndrome, which is ½ of cases is complicated by the development of pilocytic astrocytoma;
  • ARS.His mutation leads to a syndrome of the Turks, and he - to medulloblastoma and glioblastoma - malignant tumors;
  • RTSN whose change leads to Gorlin's disease, but it is complicated neuromas;P53
  • associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome which is characterized by the appearance of various sarcomas - malignant non-epithelial tumors, including those in the brain;
  • some other genes.

Major changes affect these protein molecules:

  1. hemoglobin - the protein that carries oxygen to the cells;
  2. cyclins - activator protein of the cyclin-dependent protein kinases;
  3. cyclin-dependent protein kinases - intracellular enzymes which regulate the cell cycle of life from birth to death;
  4. E2F - proteins responsible for cell cycle control proteins and the work of those who have to suppress tumors.They should also make sure that the virus containing the DNA did not change human DNA;
  5. growth factors - proteins which give rise signal of a particular tissue;
  6. proteins that "translate" the language of the incoming signal in a language understood by the cell organelles.

proved that undergo changes in the first place those cells that are actively dividing.And these children more than adults.Therefore, a brain tumor can be activated even in the newborn baby.And if the cell accumulates a lot of changes in their own genome, to guess the speed with which it will share and what her descendants will be impossible.So benign tumors (eg glioma - the most common brain training) may, if uncontrolled mutations in components of their cell structures, degenerate into malignant (glioma - in glioblastoma).

triggering factor of occurrence of brain tumors

When the brain has a predisposition to the appearance of the tumor, or there is reduction in the rate of recovery of damages, the trigger (and adults - initially cause) the appearance of tumors can:

  • ionizing radiation;
  • electromagnetic wave (including the abundant bond);
  • infrared radiation;
  • effects of vinyl chloride gas, which is needed in the manufacture of plastic items;
  • pesticides;
  • GMOs in food;
  • human papillomatosis virus types 16 and 18 (they can be diagnosed by blood PCR, and their treatment is to support the immune system at a high level, what help not only drugs, but also hardening, vegetable and volatile, and vegetables in the diet).

Risk Factors tumors

more likely to "catch" the formation of the cranial cavity at:

  • men;
  • persons under the age of 8 years or 65-79 years old;
  • liquidators of Chernobyl;
  • those who wear a cell phone near the head or talking on it (even after a hands-free device);
  • working on the production of toxic, when there is contact with the mercury, refined petroleum products, lead, arsenic, pesticides;
  • if performed organ transplantation;
  • HIV-infected;
  • receiving chemotherapy for tumors of any localization.

That is, being aware of in terms of risk factors, you are, if you think that they have, or a child is enough, you can talk to a neurologist and get him direction on the magnetic resonance (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET)brain.

tumors Classification

The origin of brain tumors are:

  1. primary: that develop from the structures that exist in the cranial cavity, whether it be the bones, white or gray matter of the brain, blood vessels that feed all these structures, the nerves that gofrom the brain, the meninges.
  2. Secondary: they make the modified cells of any other organ.It - metastasis.

Depending on the molecular and cellular (in one cell type may be different receptor molecules) are separated structure many types of brain tumors.Here are the basic, most common:

  • Emerging from the brain tissue - epithelial and neuronal.This benign ependymoma, glioma, astrocytoma.
  • Coming from the meninges: meningioma.
  • Growing of cranial nerves - neuroma.
  • whose origin - pituitary cells.This pituitary adenoma.
  • Dizembriogeneticheskie tumors that occur in utero that interferes with the normal differentiation of tissues.In this case, the brain can detect hair tangle, tooth primordia, or other unsuitable for this localization, tissue.
  • Metastases from bodies outside the cranial cavity.They get into the brain from the bloodstream, at least - the lymph.

There is also a classification which takes into account the differentiation of tumor cells.Here it must be said that the more differentiated tumor (ie, cells are more similar to normal), the slower it grows and metastasizes.

Classification primary tumors indicates that they are divided into two major groups: non-glioma and glioma.

Gliomas

This - the common name for tumors originating from cells surrounding neural tissue - the brain basis.They provide neurons "climate" and conditions for normal functioning.In gliomas account for 4/5 of all malignant brain structures.

are 4 grade gliomas.Classes 1 and 2 - the least malignant, slow-growing.The third class is considered to have malignant, it grows moderately fast.Class 4 - the most malignant of all primary formations, known as glioblastoma.

They are divided into the following types:

Astrocytomas

In this type accounts for 60% of all primary brain formations.They consist of astrocytes - cells that differentiate, nourish and ensure the growth of neurons.Of them is a barrier status that would set of the brain cells from the blood.

oligodendrogliomas

origin of these tumors - from oligodendrocyte cells, which also protect neurons.This is a rare type of tumors.They presented srednedifferentsirovannymi and moderately malignant tumors of view;occur in young adults and middle-aged persons

Ependymomas

ependyma - are cells that line the walls of the ventricles.It is they who, exchanging the components of the blood, cerebrospinal fluid were synthesized, which bathes the brain and spinal cord.

ependymal tumors are 4 classes:

  1. highly differentiated: miksopapillyarnye ependymomas and subependimomy.They grow slowly and metastasize.
  2. Srednedifferentsirovannye: ependymomas.They grow faster, not metastasize.
  3. Anaplastic ependymomas.Their growth is fast enough, can metastasize.

Mixed gliomas

These tumors contain a mixture of different cells of various differentiation.Almost always, they have mutated astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.

non-glioma

This is the second main type of malignant brain tumors.It can also make several different types of tumors.

Pituitary adenoma

These tumors mostly benign;It is more common in women.The early stage of these tumors is characterized by symptoms of endocrine disorders associated with an increase (at least - reduction) generating one or more hormones.Thus, the synthesis of large amounts of growth hormone in adults developing acromegaly - excessive growth of body parts in children - gigantism.If ACTH production grows, develops obesity, slow wound healing, acne rash, increased hair growth in hormonally-active zones.CNS Lymphoma

In this case, the malignant cells form in the lymph vessels, which are located in the cranial cavity.The reasons for such tumors is not fully known, but it is clear that they are developing with immunodeficiency and after transplantologicheskih operations.Learn more about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma.

Meningiomas

So called neoplasm originating from the modified cells of the meninges.Meningiomas are:

  • benign (Grade 1);
  • atypical (Grade 2), when seen in the structure of the mutated cells;
  • anaplastic (Grade 3): there is a tendency to metastasize.

Symptoms of brain tumors

disruption of normal cell structure periodically occur in every organ in the process of updating it (when cells divide), but normally these abnormal cells are rapidly detected and eliminated "prepared" for such events by the immune system."Symptoms" of the brain - that it surrounds a special cell barrier to immunity (he plays the role of "policeman") "to examine" all of the body cells.Therefore, until such time as:

  • tumor without taking the surrounding tissue;
  • or will not spread into the blood products of their vital activity,

symptoms appear.Some pituitary tumors and completely revealed only posthumously, because their symptoms are so insignificant that does not draw attention to themselves.MRI of the brain with intravenous contrast, which could used to detect them are not included in the list of required inspections.

Early symptoms of any brain tumor - the following:

  1. Headaches with a brain tumor.It occurs at night or in the morning (this is due to the fact that the shell will swell during the night, as the liquor is reabsorbed worse at this time).Pain is bursting or pulsating in nature, enhanced by turning your head, cough, stress the press, but it disappears after the time after the adoption of the vertical position (when the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood vessels of the brain better flowing).Syndrome persists taking painkillers.Over time, it becomes a constant headache.
  2. Nausea and vomiting , non-food.They are accompanied by a headache, but originating at its height, do not facilitate human condition.Status vomit depends on how long a person ate, if it happened recently, there is still undigested food, if a long time - an admixture of bile.This does not mean that these products happen poisoning.
  3. Other symptoms in the early stages - is:
    • deterioration of memory;
    • get worse analyze information;
    • not very good focus;
    • change the perception of what is happening.

In some cases, the first symptoms may be the first symptoms of cramps - twitching limbs or stretching of the whole body, while the person loses consciousness, in some cases - to a certain period of time, stops breathing.

Subsequent symptoms brain tumors may be:

  1. cerebral.It:
    • Oppression of consciousness.At first, people - against the backdrop of a severe headache - has become increasingly drowsy, until he begins to sleep for days without waking up for meals (the awakening, when a person does not know where he is, and those around him, can take place in order togo to the toilet).
    • Headache.It has a permanent nature, in the morning she is stronger when taking diuretic pain decreases slightly (list diuretics).
    • Vertigo.
    • Photophobia.
  2. dependent tumor localization:
    • If it is located in the motor cortex, may develop paresis (motion still possible) or paralysis (complete immobilization).Usually only one half paralyzes body.
    • Hallucinations.If the tumor - in the temporal lobe hallucinations are auditory.When it is localized in the visual cortex of the occipital, hallucinations are visual.When education affects the front portion of the frontal lobe, the olfactory hallucination may occur.
    • Hearing disorders including deafness.
    • Violation recognition or speech playback.
    • Visual disorders: loss of vision - a complete or partial;double vision;distortion of the shape or size of objects.
    • Violation of recognition of objects.
    • inability to understand written text.
    • Nystagmus ( "running around the pupil"): people want to look to one side, but his eyes "run."
    • pupillary diameter difference and their response to light (one can react the second - no).
    • asymmetry of the face or parts of it.
    • Failure to write the text.
    • incoordination: staggering when walking or standing, promahivanie by objects.
    • Autonomic disorders: vertigo, groundless sweating, feeling hot or cold, fainting due to low pressure.
    • Violation of intellect and emotion.A man becomes aggressive, ill get along with others, less savvy, it is more difficult to coordinate their activities.
    • Violation of pain, temperature, vibration sensitivity in certain areas of the body.
    • Hormonal disorders.They occur in tumors of the pituitary and pineal gland.

All of these symptoms are similar to a stroke.The difference is that they do not develop immediately, but there is a definite staging.

Stages brain tumor - following:

  1. tumor is superficial.Components of its cells are non-aggressive, engaged only in maintaining their livelihoods, that is practically not subject in depth and breadth.Detection of tumors at this stage is difficult.
  2. cell growth and mutation of progress, they have to penetrate more deeply lying layers, soldering adjacent structures to each other, affecting the blood and lymph vessels.
  3. At this stage, symptoms of headache, dizziness, emaciation, fever.May develop loss of coordination, visual disturbances, nausea and vomiting, after which it becomes easier not (as opposed to poisoning).
  4. At this stage, the tumor grows all the meninges, which is why it is no longer possible to remove and metastasizes to other organs: lungs, liver, abdominal organs, causing them to defeat the symptoms.