12 August

Obstructive bronchitis in adults

obstructive bronchitis in adults - a diffuse lesion of the bronchi caused by prolonged irritation and inflammation, for which there is a narrowing of the bronchi, accompanied by difficulty going outside accumulating mucus, sputum.When bronchospasm, which are inherent to this disease, there is difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing, non-involvement of other organs and systems.Progressive inflammatory process leads to disruption of ventilation.

Causes of bronchial obstruction

Factors affecting the development of obstructive bronchitis:

Medical factors:
  • Infectious-inflammatory diseases of the respiratory organs and violation of nasal breathing, pockets of infection in the upper respiratory tract - bronchitis, pneumonia
  • Repeated viral infectionsand diseases of the nasopharynx
  • Tumors of the trachea and bronchi
  • airways hyperreactivity
  • Genetic predisposition
  • propensity to allergic reactions
  • injuries and burns
  • Poisoning
Socio-economic factors:
  • smoking, passive smo
    king (see.video of what makes cigarettes)
  • alcohol abuse
  • Adverse conditions
  • residence Older age
Environmental factors:
  • Prolonged exposure to the bronchial mucosa of physical stimuli, which are in the external environment - allergens, such as pollen of certain plants, homedust, animal dander, etc.
  • presence of chemical irritants in the air at work or at home -. inorganic and organic dust, acid vapors, ozone, chlorine, ammonia, silicon, cadmium, sulfur dioxide, etc. (see..the effect of household chemicals on health).

Types obstructive bronchitis

acute obstructive bronchitis - an acute form of bronchial obstruction is not typical for adults, as often happens acute obstructive bronchitis in children up to 4 years.However, observed in adult primary obstructive bronchitis - due to attachment of multiple risk factors described above, the inflammatory process develops.Against the background of SARS, influenza, pneumonia, with inadequate treatment and other factors may provoke the onset of obstruction.In acute obstructive bronchitis are the main symptoms in patients with the following:

  • first observed catarrh of the upper respiratory tract
  • strong dry cough, with difficult expectoration
  • coughing fit especially worse at night
  • Shortness of breath, with the noise you exhale
  • temperature of low-grade, do notabove 37.5 - is what distinguishes acute obstructive bronchitis from simple acute bronchitis, which typically high temperature.

acute bronchial obstruction can be cured, but if it becomes chronic, it can be a progressive irreversible disease.

Chronic obstructive bronchitis - a progressive obstruction of the bronchi in response to various stimuli.Bronchial obstruction conventionally divided into: reversible and irreversible.Symptoms, which patients usually go to the doctor:

  • strong cough, with the release of the morning scanty sputum mucous character
  • Shortness of breath, initially only appears during exercise
  • Wheezing, shortness of breath
  • Sputum may acquire purulent between joining otherinfections and viruses, and is regarded as a recurrent obstructive bronchitis.

Over time, the irreversible process of chronic disease progresses, and the intervals between relapses are shorter.In chronic course should

How to treat obstructive bronchitis

treatment of obstructivebronchitis should be with the active participation of the patient in the treatment process.If possible, is to eliminate the negative factors that trigger the progression of the disease - this is primarily giving up smoking, the desire to maintain a healthy lifestyle as much as possible, if the main reason for the development of industrial hazardous obstruction bronhova - desirable work shift.

bronchodilator therapy. It consists of three groups of drugs:

  • Anticholinergic drugs. most effective and well-known of them ipratropium bromide in aerosol metered - Atrovent.Action inhalants occurs slowly over about one hour and lasts 4-8 hours.The daily dosage of 2-4 inhalations 3-4 times.
  • Beta - 2 agonists .These drugs recommended 3-4 times a day.If the patient is not bright severity of symptoms, then they can only be used as prophylaxis immediately prior to exercise.The best-known products: Berotek salbutamol.
  • methylxanthines. widespread use of long-acting theophylline, they are used 1 to 2 times a day.The most famous of these drugs teopeka.Aminophylline solution is introduced only on the testimony of hospitals.Care should be taken in the treatment of methylxanthines patients with heart failure.

Mukoregulyatornye funds. to improve sputum discharge, in cases of violation of its allocation used acetylcysteine, Ambroxol or Lasolvan (cm. List of expectorant cough).

Antibiotic therapy. In cases of additional bacterial infection, the presence of purulent sputum and general signs of intoxication prescribe antibiotics for bronchitis broad spectrum of action for 7-14 days.The inhaled antibiotics are not used.If the patient has chronic obstructive bronchitis, antibiotics prophylactically to prevent exacerbations, is not carried out.

Corticosteroids .Their use is limited, and systemic corticosteroids are assigned only in severe respiratory failure.Possibly, the use of inhaled hormone since such side effects are significantly reduced application.

Medical breathing exercises. respiratory muscle training is indicated for all patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis.This gymnastics Strelnikova and Buteyko breathing and use breathing simulator Frolov.

Indications for hospitalization

  • Exacerbation of chronic obstructive bronchitis, which is not docked in outpatient treatment (saved cough with purulent sputum, shortness of breath, growing signs of respiratory failure)
  • Respiratory failure developed acute.
  • Joining pneumonia.
  • Signs of heart failure in the development of pulmonary heart.
  • need for bronchoscopy.

advantages of nebulizers with the introduction of drugs for COPD

Medicines for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis advisable to use inhaled.Most often in everyday life, to this end use nebulizers.Their benefits are as follows.

  • medicine sprayed in the form of fine particles in the aerosol, whereby the depth of penetration of substances increases in the airways.
  • ease of use in children and the elderly (no need to coordinate inhalation with breath, which is difficult to teach a young child or elderly).
  • Nebulizer allows you to enter the high dose of the drug and can be used for the relief of asthma attacks.