Baker's cyst of the knee joint - symptoms, treatment

called a Baker cyst formation in the popliteal fossa, which significantly reduces the mobility of the knee joint, it develops because of inflammation in the knee joint.

In the medical literature there are names of diseases like - bursitis of the knee or knee joint hernia and Bekker's cyst.At the same illness the person notices uncomfortable, especially when the pull or bend the leg.

Often, the cyst appears as a consequence of other knee problems such as arthritis or cartilage damage.In this case, popliteal fossa is filled with an excessive amount of fluid that provokes the growth of cysts.

What causes a Baker cyst?

popliteal cyst Baker develops in the exchange-dystrophic changes in joints, most often after injuries, illnesses meniscus, and as a result of inflammation - rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, knee injury, damage to cartilage, psoriatic arthritis, excessive exercise, and osteoarthritisothers. In some cases, the cyst occurs with no known cause.

That is the main reason for the format

ion of Hydra below the knee - an inflammation of the mucous mezhsuhozhilnyh bags, which are between the semimembranosus muscle and the tendons of the middle of the head of the gastrocnemius muscle.And these mezhsuhozhilnye mucous bags exist in 50% of healthy people, and the disease is being developed only in the inflammatory process in it, manifesting an increase of bags, movement disorder and pain in the knee.

Since mucous bags tendon connected to the cavity of the knee joint through a narrow slit opening when the joint is inflamed inner sheath liquid released from an inflammation of the joint cavity occurs in a bag and stored there.The most common cause of bags inflammation is a disease of the knee meniscus.

Among the diseases, preceding the appearance of Baker's cysts can be called:

  • cartilage damage
  • osteoarthritis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • osteoarthritis
  • damage to the knee joint
  • chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane)
  • degenerative transformation meniscus
  • patellofemoral arthrosis

Symptoms of Baker's cysts

on the development of Baker's cyst knee can be judged by special signs.At the initial stage of the disease is manifested by some discomfort or no symptoms at all.In the future, the cyst grows and compresses the surrounding nerves.It causes pain, numbness and tingling in the sole that prevents bending the knee fully.

and changing the appearance of the popliteal fossa.In particular, there is a small tumor formation, palpation felt his firmness and density.In most cases, it depends on the individual patient.Some do not feel anything special, others suffer from intense simtomov such as:

  • sharp pain in the knee joint
  • decrease his mobility
  • swelling on the back of the leg

With the development of Baker's cyst symptoms should consult a doctor immediately,time to recognize the disease.It happens so that the cyst does not occur by itself, but is a sign of dangerous diseases, such as tumor or aneurysm of the popliteal artery.

How to diagnose a cyst Baker?

course, primarily orthopedic traumatologist or on the basis of clinical and patient complaints diagnoses the disease.Typically, this can be done during a simple physical examination.If on the disease in doubt, it is assigned an additional magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound.In severe cases, an arthroscopy or arthropneumography knee.

Differential diagnosis of Baker's cyst is carried out Sinovioma (true tumors) aneurysms and arteries.Sinovioma is irregularly shaped assembly having a dense texture.It develops from the synovial membrane.An aneurysm is determined by the presence of noise and ripple on auscultation.

Treatment of Baker's cysts

The diagnostics doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment.In some situations, a Baker cyst resolves itself, treatment is required only when education is large and accompanied by a strong discomfort.A physical therapist can recommend a set of special exercises in conjunction with the imposition of cold compresses to accelerate the healing.
In other cases, use of conservative and surgical methods of removing education.Tactics of treatment of Baker's cysts usually determines the surgeon or podiatrist.

  • conservative method

involves performing puncture cyst, aspiration of excess fluid with a syringe (drainage of the cyst), and the subsequent introduction into the cyst steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, for example, diprospana, Kenalogum or hydrocortisone.The main problem in medical treatment is that it is not always effective and often provokes recurrent.

If the knee joint is inflamed, it is necessary first of all to cure the main illness.In this case, the appointed physiotherapy (bioresonance therapy, pulsed), compresses, ointments and tablets (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cm. List of all NSAIDs in Article shots back pain), medical blockade using hormonal medications, and physical exercises aimedstrengthening the knee.

When Baker's cysts of the knee folk treatments may be used in combination therapy, these are herbs like burdock (see. -polza Burdock root and harm), celandine, golden mustache.If the patient does not have allergic reactions to these plants, then the small size of the brush packs are good enough effect, you can also take infusions of herbs inside.

  • Surgery

Much more result makes surgery.Often resort to it when the cyst becomes large and hinders joint movement, its bending, squeezing with the popliteal neurovascular bundle.The reason for the operation, and can serve as an unsuccessful conservative treatment and recurrent synovitis.

Operative removal Baker's cyst is based on its excision.Usually, local anesthesia (general anesthesia in children), and the procedure lasts no more than a third hour.The following operations technology - is held in place cyst incision 3-4 cm in length, the surgeon identifies education, and place of the knee joint cavity of the connection with a cyst ligated and stitched, and the cyst is cut off.

Sometimes, such an operation is performed using the arthroscope, the least traumatic as produced only three small incisions with the diameter of the insertion tube.After surgery, the patient is recovering in a hospital about 3-5 hours, the stitches are removed after a week.Walk alone the patient is allowed only 5 days after surgery.Postoperatively, the patient wears a tight bandage or plaster.


be aware that treatment will be more effective if it is started as soon as possible, because such a cyst of the knee may give complications:

  • gap cysts

In rare cases, it is broken, and synovial fluid goes into the muscle backof the leg.This occurs as a result of the pressure increase due to the size of the brush.In this situation, the following symptoms occur: swelling of the knee or the whole leg, sharp pain in the knee area due to compression of the blood, lymph vessels and nerves, redness of the skin on the affected area.These symptoms are very similar to symptoms of disorders associated with the occurrence of blood clots in the legs vessels.A qualified physician must examine the patient and avoid such illnesses, such as thrombosis or deep vein thrombophlebitis.

  • Compression of veins, muscles, nerves shin

Baker's cyst may put pressure on the veins of the lower leg, causing blood stasis, the development of blood clots and inflammation of the walls of the veins.It is known to all that the thrombus detachment causes blockage of large blood vessels, and if this is the pulmonary artery, it is instant death of the patient.Break squeezed the blood vessel may be complicated by heavy bleeding.Prolonged compression of the nerves, muscles, blood vessels, there is compartment syndrome, the effects of which are very serious for the whole limb.May develop soft tissue necrosis, inflammation of the bone (osteomyelitis) and other complications.