classic look of a real man requires a powerful torso, beautiful muscular relief, stable potency, high fertility and rapid temperament.All these gender characteristics are largely determined by the level of the primary male sex hormone, which is called testosterone.
What is testosterone
Normally, the base level of testosterone has in all periods of human development, including prenatal.Testosterone itself - is a steroid derived from cholesterol.It is active enough in its original form and slightly binds the androgen receptor as a protein associated with which travels in the bloodstream.To form hormone acquired operating (turned into dihydrotestosterone) needed enzyme 5-alpha reductase.
testosterone plays a key role in the development of male gonads (testes and prostate), the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, libido, spermatogenesis.It is also important for the metabolism (primarily muscle building, weight regulation), regulates mood and determines the higher brain functions (memory,
- In men, testosterone is produced in the testes and adrenal cortex under the influence of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating pituitary hormones.
- In women, testosterone is also produced by the adrenal glands and ovaries, but it is significantly smaller than in the male body.A number of hormones released during pregnancy and due to the placenta.In women, it is responsible for the regression of follicles in the ovary, and adjusts the level of the pituitary hormones.
Standards testosterone laboratory parameters:
- for men - 11-33 nanomoles per liter
- women - 0. 24-2,75 nanomoles per liter.
testosterone in the male
testosterone in the fetus
Fetus after 4 weeks of gestation by the action of testosterone develop the seminal vesicles and prostate, as well as masculinization occurs the embryo, ie,She laid the baby's sex.
- The transition to adulthood is marked spurt in growth with the expansion of skeletal rib cage and shoulders increases, growth of the jaw, chin and forehead.
- increasing muscle mass while increasing strength.
- Adam's apple grows and coarsens his voice due to a thickening of the vocal cords.
- Subcutaneous fat on the face is reduced, but expand and begin to work more sebaceous glands, which can lead to conditions for the occurrence of acne.
- Appears body hair pubes and armpits, the hair on the upper lip.
- As they grow body hair extends to the lower part of the face, stomach, chest and legs.
- are increasing external genitals, and enhanced libido.
- simultaneously increasing spermatogenesis and increases fertility.
At a high level of testosterone may experience hair loss on the head.Testosterone levels the effect of stress hormones (cortisol) and a feeling of contentment and joy of life.The higher levels of the hormone, the more aggressive, passionarity and cheerful man.
testosterone in adult men
- As we approach old age the level of testosterone in the blood and sensitivity to receptors gradually reduced (by about 1.5% per year after 35 years), causing physiological or pathological (menopause) extinction of sexual function.
- At the same time there are problems in the health of the heart and blood vessels, can cause osteoporosis, suffers the autonomic nervous system, increases the instability of mood and irritability.
- also increases the likelihood of Alzheimer's disease.
reasons for the decline of testosterone levels
significantly decrease testosterone levels (below 11 nmol / l) is called hypogonadism.It can be:
- primary - with the defeat of testicular
- secondary - with the defeat of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
main causes of abnormal testosterone decline in men:
- adrenal insufficiency
- chronic prostatitis
- reception glkyukokortikoidov that reduce tissue sensitivity to testosterone
- treatment Danazol, cimetidine, carbamazepine, cytostatics, magnesium sulfate, Spironrolaktonom (veroshpiron), tetracycline, thioridazine
- chronic starvation
As seen in males decreased testosterone levels:
- decrease in vitality
- decreased libido and potency (see Preparations for potency increasing:. To whom and when to take)
- decreased concentration, memory and mental abilities
- reduced muscle mass
- decrease in metabolic rate as a result - weight
testosterone Increase in men natural ways
When a drop in testosterone is not associated with severe disease and is caused by irrationala way of life, changing habits and diet are quite capable to correct the situation.It is enough:
- not hungry and did not suffer gluttony
- Avoid soy foods because soy protein containing estrogen
- Do not neglect protein food (be sure the meat in the diet), do not press on the sweet (cakes, cookies, white bread,muffins, pastries, chocolate and so on.)
- not get involved in alcohol, beer (under the influence of testosterone molecule of alcohol is converted into estrogen).To note, the beer - it is a plant estrogen, ie it contains analogues of female sex hormones, so it is not desirable to use men.Only natural wine, no more than two glasses a week will not harm the health and hormonal background.
- Avoid carbonated, fizzy drinks (harmful to health, contains a lot of sugar).
- Eat vegetable oils and animal fats.
- Include in the diet foods rich in zinc and increase testosterone - leafy greens, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, nuts (peanuts, pistachios, walnuts, almonds), cheese, broccoli and cauliflower, seafood (anchovies, squid), fish (saury, trout, salmon).
- Inclusion of food products rich in essential amino acid arginine - an easy way to improve people's testosterone.To do this, eat beef, pork, chicken, eggs, almonds, sesame, peas, cottage cheese, tuna fish, snails, peanuts, cauliflower, nuts and drink milk.
- Oriental Medicine recommends the use of plants such as knotweed polyanthous, nezabudkotsvetkovy Smilax.
- Drink plain water at least 2 liters per day (clean water, her juices, soft drinks, carbonated do not apply). See what water is better to drink.
limited contact with bisphenol
Bisfnol is a weak estrogen, it is in a plastic container, deodorant, washing and cleaning, soap, lotions for the body, reducing the use of these resources in the home can also help boost testosterone.
Normalization of sleep
Most of the sex hormones produced in the phase of deep sleep, so a chronic lack of sleep lowers the level of testosterone and the measures taken to improve it are reduced to zero.Sleep should be in complete darkness and silence for at least 8 hours (see. How to deal with insomnia and normalize sleep).
For fans of bodybuilding
the problem of increasing testosterone are often very concerned about fans of bodybuilding and other bodybuilders who dream of a fast growth of muscle mass due to this hormone.Also, testosterone is doping, increasing the strength and endurance.Here I would like to remind about common sense.Ways to increase testosterone by physical activities and sports diet is very simple.
- For example, high intensity training increases testosterone sure.It is important to exercise were highest, but short (5-30 minutes) with little rest between sets.
- Using digestible proteins (protein gainers) also helps.It is desirable to use milk proteins immediately after training in the so-called "protein window".
But testosterone administration in the form of preparations (patches, injections or pills), the athletes are not recommended due to increased risk of secondary hypogonadism (the higher the hormone outside, the less his own generation).Also, administration of drugs may be complicated by accelerated aging and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
- Another interesting observation - a testosterone growth on contact with the sun.With natural tanning increases the level of vitamin D, which increases and testosterone.
- Movies explicit content is able to raise the level of the male sex hormone after only an hour.
- adultery and burdensome novels also stimulate testosterone production, in contrast to the strong multi-year marriage.Therefore, men with high levels of testosterone are prone to extramarital affairs and divorce.
Drugs that increase testosterone
testosterone therapy medicinal preparations begin, when hormone levels drop below 10 nanomoles per liter.
- Testosterone propionate injection is indicated for reducing the work gonads and menopause in men.Contraindications for prostate cancer.Side effects include water retention and salt in the body (the propensity to edema and increased blood pressure), increased sexual arousal.
- Testosterone undecanoate tablets (Andriol, Androkson, Virigen), capsules (Nuvir, Panteston, Restandol, Undestor) and injectable (Nebido).Tablet formulations are considered to be effective enough, as steroid hormones absorbed more of the oily solution than when taken orally.
- methyltestosterone (Androral, Testoral, Metandren) - one of the first drugs used today are not due to significant side effects.
- Proviron (Mesterolone) - Tablets 25 mg are used for hypogonadism, infertility, menopause disorders potentsii.muzhskom and associated decrease in capacity for work, emotional instability.Contra-indications: prostate cancer, liver tumors.
- mixture of testosterone esters Omnadren, Sustanon, Testosterone sustaretard, Testosiberonpropionat (Durandron) - the most effective injectable drugs.If therapy is carried out only by testosterone, the drug dose is sufficient to 1000-1500 mg per week.
General risks of long-term testosterone treatment in high doses:
- this oppression produce their own hormone
- develop swelling of the mammary glands (gynecomastia)
- increase in the probability of occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease, cancer pathology of the prostate, hepatocellular nedostatchnosti
- forreduce the risks of gynecomastia testosterone combined with tamoxifen.
In general, we note that while the uncontrolled use of testosterone without direct medical indication passed.It is not justified is the use of drugs of this hormone in athletes and bodybuilders.
as demonstration effects muscle growth with anabolic steroids would like to mention the death of steroids bodybuilder Andreas Munzer (1996), and liver transplant Arnold Schwarzenegger.
In 2014 in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration ordered manufacturers of drugs necessary to specify in the instructions to the drug testosterone warning about the risks of strokes and heart attacks when using these drugs.It is also strongly recommended to limit the use of testosterone preparations clinical situations, when no hormone replacement therapy can not be dispensed, dramatically reducing the use of gels and patches with the hormone in men 40-65 years old, for whom testosterone decline is a natural physiological aspect.
Thus, the question of how to increase testosterone in men, and how reasonable this increase must be addressed first endocrinologist with the participation of the urologist, andrologist, and not the seller of sports nutrition or fitness trainer.