Metabolism - the main property of living organisms

basic property of life is the exchange of substances between the human organism and the environment.For the existence of a living organism is necessary to flow from the external environment of oxygen, water and various nutrients.

If this process continues, the stops and the life.Under the exchange understand all the processes of transformation of nutrients in our body to assimilate them, processing and allocation of sharing the external environment products.

Assimilation and dissimilation

The human digestive organs complex organic substances (fats, carbohydrates, proteins) are broken down, usually on the more simple.These substances, in the form of solutions soaked, penetrating into the lymph and blood.Blood, lymph, interstitial fluid is delivered to all tissues essential nutrients.Among the organic compounds that are received by sucking in cells, tissues formed complex proteins, carbohydrates, fats, characteristic to the human body.This process of transformation and assimilation of substances ente

ring directly into the human body, is called assimilation.Whereby the body is enriched with specific substances, as well as the latent chemical energy.

Along with assimilation into the tissues and cells of the body takes place dissimilation, t. E. The process of disintegration of complex organic substances into simple.At the same time necessarily occurs energy release, and the remains of metabolic waste products from the body are derived.

dissimilation and assimilation processes are inextricably linked and occur usually in unity.Even though its opposite, yet was not without assimilation to dissimilation because collapse would be nothing.During dissimilation energy released is converted into heat or in the mechanical, which is used directly in the human body.

Exchange has age-that is, during the growth of the human body assimilation over dissimilation prevails, and quite significantly.In adulthood, the person these are almost in balance.And already dissimilation processes prevail over assimilation in old age a person - destroyed more substance than is produced.

As a rule, in the metabolism distinguish protein, fat, carbohydrate, water and mineral metabolism, which between them are closely linked.It should be noted that knowledge of each is very important, because in violation of one or the other need to apply special treatments.It is also very important to know that a violation of one of them very, very much affects the whole body.


proteins Proteins are the most complex substances the body and the main foundation of all cells.They play a crucial role in the process of metabolism.Protein - is the main building material in the body.They are used as an energy material.Proteins that are typical of a human body are formed from the breakdown of proteins food products that enter the blood from the small intestine and spread it to all organs, tissues and cells.The end products of the breakdown of proteins in tissues and cells enter the blood stream and total discharge through the bodies are removed from the body with the urine and the sweat.With sufficient

admission rate for an adult proteins and fats 1.5 g carbohydrates per day per 1 kg of body weight.The oxidation in the body 1 gives 4.1 g protein calories large.

protein diet must be complete, ie. E. The food should contain all the necessary components of body proteins.Diverse food provides the body with all the component parts necessary for the construction of human proteins.To satisfy the body's need for protein is best with the help of animal food.Proteins are rich in meat, fish (especially cod), curd, cheese, sausage, and eggs.

from plant foods especially high in protein include soy, peas, beans, legumes, nuts.Not all vegetable proteins contain the necessary components of human proteins.Proteins can not be replaced either with carbohydrates or fats, because the latter contain no nitrogen.In the liver proteins can be processed and move in fats and carbohydrates.


carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy.The oxidation in the body 1 gives 4.1 g of carbohydrate calories large.Thanks to the carbohydrates human organs and tissues receive energy, which are carried out by various movements, heat is generated.

to carbohydrates include starch, sugar, cellulose.When excess carbohydrates carbohydrate diet may become fat, but with little - formed from fat.With sufficient supply of grease carbohydrates adult rate 7.8 g per 1 kg of body weight per day.The normal functioning of the organism is subject to a more or less constant blood sugar (0.1%).The main products that contain carbohydrates include various sugars, flour, cereals, potatoes, bread, fruits and vegetables.

The blood vessels of villi absorbed aqueous solutions of simple sugars such as glucose, the end products of their decomposition in the body are carbon dioxide and water.

Glucose is essential for the normal functioning of muscles and cells of the central nervous system as an energy source.It is converted to glycogen reserves in the liver and deposited in the muscle, and if necessary, reconverted into glucose.When shortage of glucose in the blood is reduced human performance.When nervous exhaustion or heart failure an intravenous infusion of glucose used.

fat Exchange

Fats are basically energetic material.The oxidation of 1 gram fat gives 9.3 large calories.The end products of fat oxidation and decomposition are the same as that of carbohydrates.

fat is deposited in the reserve under the skin in the abdomen, surrounding organs in the loose connective tissue.Excessive deposition of fat is harmful for the body, as the difficult work of the heart and kidneys.With sufficient supply of daily rate of fat proteins and carbohydrates is somewhat smaller than the protein.In cold climates, fat intake should be increased.If insufficient intake of fat in the body comes exhaustion.

The chemical composition of animal fats closer to the fats in our body than vegetable.Easily digestible fats that make up the dairy products (butter, cream, sour cream) and fats, egg yolk.Because herbal products are particularly valuable for a variety of oil supply:. Linseed, sunflower, corn, hemp, etc.

exchange of water and mineral salts

Water makes up about 70% of total body weight.It is needed as a part of the body.Particularly a lot of water in the blood, lymph, and tissue fluid, digestive juices.Daily amount of water in the temperate climate of 2-2.5 liters.Some bodies are very rich in water.The brain cells it contains 85% to 75% in the muscles.In some small bodies of water in about 20% of the bones.The processes of digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates into its component parts and the formation of these complex organic compounds are carried out in water.

Due to the water ensures a constant composition of the blood and lymph.Without water possible metabolic processes, as they occur in aqueous solutions.In the complete absence of water in the food, death occurs within 4-5 days.When working in hot shops, as well as in agriculture in the summer hot weather recommend drinking water with an admixture of 0.2-0.5% of salt.Lightly salted water to compensate for salt when sweating, thirst and reduces perspiration, improves health and increases productivity.

to the body are of great importance, and various mineral salts.The body needs sodium salts, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, iron, iodine, bromine, zinc and others.

salts are part of the cell.During the life of an organism are constantly excreted in the urine, sweat and other products selection, so should regularly ingested.Most essential minerals included in the foods.For normal functioning of the body needs sodium chloride, t. E. Salt.This requires to consume food 10-12.5 g salt per day.Thus the organism receives not only the sodium necessary for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, but also chlorine required for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the glands of the stomach.