Physical methods of diagnosis by blood allow doctors to detect a number of informative features, confirming the clinical syndromes, diseases peculiar to the blood system and hemostasis.
Diagnostics blood anemic syndrome
How to diagnose anemic blood syndrome?
This syndrome is manifested by pallor of the skin and mucous membranes.Diagnosis is by blood, depending on the form of anemia that has alabaster pallor or greenish (chlorosis) - When iron deficiency anemia, or combined with ikterichnostyo (jaundice) in hemolytic anemia.
patients with anemic syndrome in the diagnosis can detect rapid breathing and heart rate, expanding the boundaries of cardiac dullness, systolic murmur over all points of the heart auscultation and noise "top" of the large veins (due to the acceleration of blood circulation and reduce blood viscosity due to erythropenia)a moderate decrease of blood pressure, pasty legs.
clinical manifestations of anemia at diagnosis in each case depend on the degree and speed of development a
Diagnostics Blood hemorrhagic syndrome
How to diagnose a hemorrhagic blood syndrome?
About hemorrhagic syndrome indicate bleeding from the nose, gums, lungs, etc., as well as confirming their signs -. Clotted blood in the nasal passages, on the lips, on the clothes, swabbed braid etc.The skin and mucous membranes in the diagnosis, you can find a variety of hemorrhagic phenomena in the form of a petechial rash, bruising of all sizes and stages of resorption - from fresh to dissolve.Petechial skin rash often similar to an allergic rash.Last when pressing on it with a watch glass or glass with a spatula becomes unobtrusive or even disappear.Haemorrhagic skin rash with pressure on her glass instrument remains unchanged.
Diagnostics Blood compression syndromes
How to diagnose compression syndromes of blood?
Increase mesenteric or retroperitoneal lymph nodes causes the development of ascites and intestinal obstruction;during compression of the common bile duct lymph nodes in the liver gate jaundice;the localization of lymph nodes near the spine appear radicular symptoms and even paraplegia as a result of penetration of tumor in the spine and spinal cord compression.
Much spleno- and lead to hepatomegaly seems to face an increase in the abdomen, which is especially characteristic of some embodiments of chronic leukemia (chronic myeloid leukemia, lymphocytic leukemia, and others.).Increase baking in hematological patients occurs most often due to its acute dystrophy or toxic-allergic hepatitis in acute leukemia, sprouting in her leukemic tissue (myeloid, granulomatous, and others.) In chronic leukemia.
Enlargement of the spleen at diagnosis in hematological patients is the result of increasing its jet with intensive kroverazrushenii (eg, hemolytic anemia);tumor growth in it (for example, in leukemia, limfogranulomatoz et al.), infectious complications (eg sepsis).In patients with hematologic enlarged liver and spleen palpation are usually smooth, rather compact, moderately painful or painless.This helps greatly in the diagnosis, as in malignant tumors, cirrhosis of the liver, echinococcus and others. These bodies are often uneven and very tight.
Weight loss up to cachexia, signs of scratching the skin, increased body temperature, etc.in the diagnosis indicate a patient intoxication syndrome, the severity of which is directly correlated with the severity of the disease.Objectification osteoartropaticheskogo syndrome in patients with hematological (ossalgia, arthralgia and arthropathy) are palpation pain in the affected bone (for example, multiple myeloma), dysfunction of the joints (arthralgia at), as well as the detection of other signs of defeat of the musculoskeletal system.
So, ankylosed, misshapen, enlarged in size joints are characteristic of hemophilia, which can be explained by repeated bleeding into them.In hematological patients can be revmatoidopodobnye arthritis often large peripheral joints (knee, shoulder, elbow), rarely - small, including carpal.The defeat of the joints is usually asymmetrical.The joints are swollen, painful on palpation and movement, range of motion in them is limited.
In some patients, the diagnosis of blood found hypertrophic osteoarthropathy - dense swelling and stiffness of the fingers;recurrent synovitis and lightweight with a noticeable swelling, erythema and skin hyperthermia wrist, elbow, metacarpophalangeal, knee and ankle joints;periostitis of the long bones.At an early stage of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may occur "Hippocratic fingers", iefingers in the form of "clubbing" with nails in the form of "time windows".At a later stage can develop fibrotic contraction.
lymphadenopathy lymphadenopathy is a symptom of many hematologic diseases.The presence of a pronounced lymphadenopathy makes make a thorough study of lymph node palpation, and make them a biopsy followed by analysis limfadenogrammy.A significant increase in the submandibular, cervical, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes often causes a configuration change (anti-aliasing, bulging, disfigurement, etc.) in the body of their location.In diseases of the blood system in the diagnosis of lymph nodes are often dense, painless, they are slowly but steadily increasing in size.
For lymphadenopathy inflammatory origin characteristic tenderness enlarged lymph nodes, fistula formation, effects of intoxication (fever, chills, leukocytosis, etc..), The disappearance of signs of lymphadenitis as the inflammation subsided.Tumor swollen lymph nodes can cause compression syndromes -. Bronchial compression, superior vena cava, the bile duct, etc. So, when sprouting mediastinal lymph nodes can be detected in a patient persistent shortness of breath, cyanosis, swelling of the face and neck (collar Stokes).