Due to the numerous functions of blood hemostasis systems and symptoms of blood disorders characterized by great diversity.They are divided into general pathological signs and localized, ielesions caused by one or several internal organs, and characterized by a lack of specific characteristics of blood diseases.Nevertheless, the study of blood diseases and a comparison with other pathological phenomena can induce the physician to think about the presence of the patient's blood or hemostasis system diseases.In this article, we will discuss the symptoms of diseases of the blood and of the main signs of blood disorders in humans.
symptoms of disease
general pathological symptoms of blood correspond to clinical signs, which are often observed in patients with blood diseases:
- anemic symptom,
- necrotizing sign of blood diseases,
- hemorrhagic symptom,
- limfadenopatichesky sign of blood diseases,
- feverish symptom,
- intoxication sign of blood diseases,
- osteoartropatichesky symptom,
- immunodeficiency sign of blood diseases.
Anemic syndrome - a symptom of disease of the blood
persistent headaches, dizziness and ringing in the ears, shortness of breath, a feeling of "lack of air", heartbeat, less pain in the heart, fainting, flashing "flies" in front of the eyes, increasedirritability and memory loss, fatigue and decreased performance - the main signs of blood disorders.These symptoms are caused by gipogemoglobinemiey with the development of cell hypoxia symptoms and disturbance of tissue metabolism in blood diseases.The lack of oxygen at the signs of anemia activates a number of adaptive mechanisms, primarily on the part of the respiratory and circulatory.
need for additional mechanisms is particularly pronounced at the slightest physical exertion of the patient, and often it is the main symptom of blood diseases.Note that anemic syndrome includes symptoms common to all forms of anemia, the occurrence of which is connected with the main pathophysiologic disturbances, in particular hypoxia and changes of the circulatory system.It should not include specific symptoms unique to specific clinical forms of anemia (eg, jaundice, hemolytic anemia, dysgeusia with iron deficiency anemia, glossitis symptoms of B12, folic acid deficiency anemia, hemorrhagic manifestations of aplastic anemia, etc.).
necrotizing ulcerative syndrome - a sign of blood diseases
Sore throat, salivation, swallowing disorder with ulcer-necrotic processes in the oral cavity and pharynx;bloating, cramping abdominal pain, liquid mushy stools with necrotizing enteropathy et al., the main symptoms of diseases of the blood.Signs of necrotic ulcerative mucosal lesions of the oral cavity (stomatitis), pharynx (angina), esophagus (esophagitis), intestines (enteropathy) often occur with a sharp decrease (less than 0.75 x 109 / L), or complete disappearance of granulocytes from blood,also in the presence of severe leukemic infiltration (leukemic growths) in the mucous membranes of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract when the blood diseases.
hemorrhagic syndrome - symptom blood disease
symptoms of its manifestations: bleeding in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, muscles, joints, etc., bleeding at the site of injections and infusions;.bleeding:. nose, gums, uterine, intestinal, lung, etc. The most common causes of onset of hemorrhagic syndrome in patients with blood diseases are thrombocytopenia and functional deficiency of platelets, increased vascular permeability, increased fibrinolytic activity of the blood, intravascular coagulation with increased consumptionfibrinogen and platelets (consumption coagulopathy).
Limfadenopatichesky syndrome - symptom blood disease
Symptoms of blood disease - change the configuration of the neck, underarm, groin and other areas due to enlarged lymph nodes;the phenomena of irritation and compression of enlarged lymph nodes - the signs of blood disorders.For example, when signs of increased mediastinal lymph nodes, patients may complain of persistent symptoms of dry cough and shortness of breath during exercise.If increased mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the patients often complain of blood diseases in the feeling of fullness in the abdomen, bloating, flatulence, unstable chair 1 - 2 times a day, etc.
In some cases, signs of blood disease - fever, which is often associated with sweating, may be due to the influence of mass pyrogenic disintegration of erythrocytes products, white blood cells and other blood cells.In other cases it is a consequence of necrotizing processes and joining a secondary infection with blood diseases.
Signs of blood disorders
intoxication syndrome - a sign of blood diseases
Symptoms of blood disease in this syndrome -. Increasing weakness, sweating, anorexia, weight loss, itchy skin and other signs of general weakness observed in almost all hematological patients in advanced stageblood diseases.This symptom is caused by a circulatory hypoxia with anemia or intoxication in leukemia.Patients with blood diseases while also complain of symptoms: sweating, shortness of breath on exertion, palpitations and fainting.
Older people may react to a moderate reduction in hemoglobin heart failure.Note that sweating in patients with blood disorders frequently observed in daytime, whereas in chronic inflammatory processes, it typically occurs at night.Weight Loss up to cachexia is especially pronounced in chronic leukemia and malignant lymphomas (eg, limfogranulomatoz).
Signs of itching in some cases due to intoxication and collapse of cells in the capillaries of the dermis with the release of histamine substances in blood diseases, elevated levels of basophils (for example, limfagranulomatoze, chronic myeloid leukemia), in other cases, signs of blood disorders (eg, when eritremii)caused by violation of the microcirculation in the skin, small blood clots due to increased blood viscosity, hyperthrombocytosis.Sometimes it is combined with pain in the fingertips and toes.Initially, pruritus symptom occurs after a bath or taking a bath, and then becomes permanent and painful.
Osteoartropatichesky syndrome - symptom blood disease
Signs - bone pain (ossalgia), joint pain (arthralgia), swelling, redness, and dysfunction of joints (arthropathy).
ossalgia often observed in multiple myeloma and usually localized in the vertebrae, ribs, iliac bone, sternum, at least in the long bones and the skull.These pains are spontaneous.They are well detected when the pressure on the lung or bone pokolachivanii thereon.There may be symptoms of blood disorders like radicular pain due to nerve trunk sprouting leukemic tumor tissue (for example, limfogranulomatoz, multiple myeloma).
arthralgia (joint pain) in various diseases of the blood system caused by toxicity, and immune disorders.Sometimes arthralgia is initially only a symptom of hemolytic anemia, acute leukemia, limfogranulomatoz and others. Therefore, the long-term persistent arthralgia of unknown origin is necessary to investigate the bone marrow for suspected blood disorders.
Arthropathy uncommon in hemophilia and hemoblastoses.Gemofilineskaya arthropathy - the defeat of the joints as a result of bleeding into the joint cavity.Gemoblastoznaya arthropathy due to joint inflammation and destruction of his bone structures.Patients with signs of blood disorders at the same time complaining of joint pain of varying intensity, their swelling and flushing, violation of the joint function to varying degrees.
Immunodeficiency Syndrome - a sign of a blood disease
Syndrome Symptoms: frequent colds, various complications of infectious nature.In connection with a reduction in anti-infectious immunity in patients with blood diseases, hematological malignancies frequent pneumonia, bronchitis, pyoderma, pyelonephritis and other infectious and inflammatory processes.Due to defects in the immune system may produce antibodies against normal cells (red cells, platelets, renal epithelium) and the autoimmune complications occur - hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, glomerulonephritis, etc.