Hyperventilation symptoms and causes |Effects of hyperventilation

One original medical report, dating from the period of the Civil War in the United States, is a vivid illustration of the reasons that so hard to establish the role of hyperventilation in the overall health and appearance of various disorders.

During the Civil War field surgeon John. Da Costa was the first description of some disorders, which complained about the soldiers.This symptom complex got its name - Da Costa's syndrome.Its main manifestation served as a clear depletion of vitality and as a result of complete inability to perform military duties.Subsequently syndrome da Costa was called differently: cardiopsychoneurosis, neurosis heart, effort syndrome.

symptoms of hyperventilation

main symptoms of hyperventilation

in a number of different medical sources, these diagnostic terms were accompanied by the following symptoms: shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain, nervousness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, breathing and sudden deep sighs, heartattacks or strokes, anxiety, chills and d

iscomfort in crowded places.

All this is strikingly similar to the symptoms of fear in its highest manifestation - panic with agoraphobia.But if hyperventilation is hysterical manifestation, wrote about it, Dr. Thomas Lowry, then it is not a medical person in the usual sense of the word.Consequently, it can not cause the above-mentioned set of symptoms.What then causes these symptoms?

most confusion was bringing the fact that in addition to fixing symptoms medical Dr. Kerr and his colleagues noted the following abnormalities in patients with hyperventilation syndrome:

  • palpitations;
  • breakdown;
  • shortness of breath;
  • aspiration and sharp deep breaths;
  • fainting;
  • anxiety;
  • general weakness;
  • poor breathing;
  • insomnia;
  • depression;
  • depression;
  • chronic fatigue;
  • excessive sweating;
  • fear of death;
  • feeling of suffocation;
  • sudden rush of blood to the face;
  • yawning;
  • pain radiating to the left arm;
  • vascular pulsation;
  • dry mouth.

It is clear that this is not a standard list of medical symptoms, but it is comprehensive and - except for a few items - equally could provide a list of the symptoms of psycho-physiological disorders as well as diseases related to stress and anxiety.

What related breathing disorder?

physicians are taught that respiratory failure is a clinical disease with the presence of certain symptoms of mental properties.A psychiatrist also received traditional medical education, are of the opinion that the breathing disorder is a mental disorder with some psycho-physiological symptoms of a medical nature.Nowadays, however, neither they nor others do not recognize the existence of hyperventilation syndrome.

Over time, there is a lot of other similar lists symptoms of hyperventilation, but it makes no sense to play them here, because they are almost all overlap.

hyperventilation syndrome, or respiratory distress seem to play a major role in most of the so-called psycho-physiological disorders caused by stress.If

specialist mental illness must be diagnosed, he is obliged to follow the provisions set out in the Handbook of the diagnosis and the American Psychiatric Association statistics.It is a complete description of the mental health professional psychiatrists and is the main criterion for diagnosis with different kinds of mental and emotional disorders.

hyperventilation and panic disorders such as

In said reference there is no reference to hyperventilate.Also, there are no links to the well-known term, associated with respiratory failure, such as dyspnea.However, dyspnea comes first in the list of symptoms that characterize the panic disorder:

  • dyspnea;
  • palpitations;
  • pain or discomfort in the chest;
  • feeling of suffocation;
  • nausea, dizziness, loss of coordination;
  • confusion;
  • paresthesia (tingling in the hands and feet);
  • disorder thermoregulation mechanism (man throws in the heat and cold);
  • excessive sweating;
  • weakness;
  • chills and thrill;
  • fear of death, fear of insanity or make able to attack something uncontrollable.

Twelve of these symptoms are the main criteria for a diagnosis of panic disorder type, and all of them are present in any standard list of symptoms of hyperventilation.

Is hyperventilation syndrome synonymous with panic disorder?

We already know that hyperventilation may also have other symptoms.But in some people it is clearly manifested in the form of panic disorder, often paired with agoraphobia.

This statement brings us back to the idea that physiological disorders in the body are caused by various factors complex.The same symptoms can manifest themselves in very different ways in different people.A man hyperventilation can be expressed in the insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart or in the form of angina.The other may be vascular spasms and migraine attacks occur.Even someone hyperventilation can manifest in symptoms of mental disorders, panic attacks and panic, perhaps accompanied by some or other phobias, including fear of death or depression.

confusion and uncertainty as to the role of respiratory disorders in the development of physical and mental illness generally arise from a wide variety of diseases associated with a disorder of breathing, as well as from our unjustified assumption that a certain set of symptoms necessarily correspond to any particular disease.

You know perfectly well that the mind of the therapist with extensive experience in staging various well-defined medically diagnosed, it is likely to dictate to him that hyperventilation may not be the cause of these diseases different from each other.

But most importantly, if you are experiencing these symptoms of mental health and you feel bad, you will not be treated as if you have an ordinary disease - you just say that the reason is you.

Dr Evans and Lamb in his book Practical Cardiology (Practical Cardiology) warn us about the origin of various kinds during hyperventilation chest pain.A three main types of Chest Pain Chest magazine described in detail, which are experienced by people who suffer from hyperventilation.

Types of chest pain during hyperventilation


sharp, fleeting, recurring in the left rear of the chest radiating to the neck, left shoulder and the lower end of the rib.The intensity of pain increases with deep sighs, turns and slopes.


-lasting, well-localized, usually arising under the left breast (can last for hours, sometimes days, the intensity does not change with increased physical activity).The discomfort zone chest wall painful (local anesthesia relieves).


Broken, dull, aching, feeling strong in compression of atrial retrosternal area, not passing during amplification of breath (can last for hours, sometimes days, and is often accompanied by a sore throat).

Many clinicians have mentioned in connection with hyperventilation and psevdoanginu angina (Prinzmetal angina kind).Some have concluded that hyperventilation acts as a precursor of all forms of angina and its symptoms.

mechanisms involved in the appearance of these symptoms are associated with a decrease in blood flow to the heart tissue and low oxygen content in the blood.Indeed, in an article published in the journal Postgraduate Medicine, effects influences on heart hyperventilation regarded as simulators for coronary heart disease.

What are the effects of hyperventilation on the heart?

systematic analysis of cardiograms during hyperventilation allowed to formulate a number of distinctive features.But their value is still debated.In my practice there were cases when patients with loss of heart and other cardiac arrhythmias applied to their physicians and received a response that the changes were largely benign.However, I think that everything is not so simple.

authors of the article published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, concluded that such changes in the cardiogram eloquently indicate that the heart is not getting enough oxygen.

Medical scientists published in the Bulletin of TPE Research Bulletin of the Himalayan International Society (devoted to issues of global health) the results of their observations of the respiratory picture in people with heart attacks.They described the breathing 153 patients department Hospital emergency medical care in Saint Paul Minneapolis.In patients with myocardial infarction is mainly dominated by chest breathing;76% of them breathe through the mouth.

Causes hyperventilation

What are the main causes of hyperventilation?

= Psychosomatics Psychophysiology.These days, the term psychosomatic is old-fashioned and rarely used.Instead, he uses the term psycho-physiological.The term psychosomatic emerged from psychoanalytic theory, according to which many disorders and diseases are actually physical manifestations of the hidden psychological conflicts.Modern science rejects this approach and believes that the defeat of the psyche can not lead to physiological disorders, but contributes to their emergence, if a person has the appropriate disposition.

For example, stress by itself does not cause a headache for those who are not exposed to it.However, it may increase the frequency and intensity of attacks of pain in people with a predisposition to such pain.

Usually the key to a predisposition to a particular disease family history appears.The predisposition is inherited, and if the family disease history are missing, for example, mention of the headache, it is unlikely that stress will cause you a migraine attack.And if there is a predisposition to an allergy, asthma, gastritis?

Psychoanalytic theory of psychosomatic disorders

Psychiatrists tend to think that Freud's theory explains how the mental state affects the occurrence of certain symptoms.Freud proceeded from the assumption that psychosomatic disorders are the physical expression of sexual conflicts or pent-up anger.Hence, psychosomatic symptoms must be accompanied by unconscious emotional conflicts.

symptoms of unexplained origin were interpreted as a sign of hysteria.Such people were diagnosed, symptoms of which had no apparent cause hyperventilation.Accordingly, in the event of failure to identify the true cause of the disease patients were told that they have one or another mental disorder.

According to most modern theories exist within the family and the team, working with colleagues at work, and similar factors can become the stimuli (stressors), which will lead to the development of the disease.The price that we pay for the ability to control social interactions, can have a depressing effect on the body's ability to protect themselves from disease.I bring to your attention a few theories.

Known American physiologist Walter Cannon published the results of studies that have shown that emotional arousal occurs as a result of unexpected unconscious physiological settings of the autonomic nervous system to the need to survive in inadequate conditions.

Chronic hyperventilation

Dr. K. Lam suggested a number of criteria, using which you can determine whether you have chronic hyperventilation.You are a proud owner of her, if:

  • breathe predominantly breast (chest breathing);
  • while breathing almost zadeystvuete diaphragm (abdominal wall is nearly stationary);
  • breathe with aspiration;breathing movements are performed with almost no effort with a noticeable movement of the sternum forward and upward with a slight expansion of the chest.

way, people who usually breathe normally, with difficulty breathing movements mimic those suffering from chronic hyperventilation.

Finally, as noted above, people with chronic hyperventilation, deep breath is often preceded by uttering the phrase: they take a deep breath, even before to be named in the answer to your question.

hyperventilation is probably the most common ailment among the so-called respiratory disorders, stress-related.There are different estimates of its prevalence among the population worldwide.They range between 10 and 25% of the total population of the globe.

Effects of hyperventilation hyperventilation

not associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular or other diseases, it has the following characteristics: acidity arterial blood pH is 7.4, ie close to neutral, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is below 4%.

What could be the consequences of hyperventilation?

hyperventilation usually accompanied by an increase in cardiac output and rapid breathing.Often dominated by chest breathing with high-lift the chest and deep sighs.Breathing may be irregular unequal in terms of inhalation and exhalation.There may be cramping, shortness of breath, a delay in breathing and apnea.

Most people know that the acute hyperventilation developed in situations that cause fear.But chronic hyperventilation quite insidious, and its manifestations can not be pronounced.

Sometimes customers with hyperventilation I notice shortness of breath, and sometimes - exaggerated chest movement.But the most typical is too shallow breathing - with an almost imperceptible rise of the chest, - often accompanied by a sharp gasp and deep sighs.

What to do during hyperventilation?

If the patient present any of the symptoms of hyperventilation syndrome, such as shallow breathing, breathing, deep sighs, dizzy spells, feeling of unreality, or the inability to hold your breath, but there is no certainty that the person is really suffering hyperventilation, some clinicians use the method of provocationhyperventilation.The patient is asked to breathe in deeply for 2-3 minutes, and often (to perform 20 to 30 breaths per minute).

Epilepsy during hyperventilation

Many years ago, Dr. Joshua Rosett proved that sverhventilyatsiya (as he called hyperventilation) can cause seizures.Even before the use of hyperventilation as a diagnostic test in patients with chest pain and neuromuscular disorders made prominent British pulmonologist Dr. Claude Lam, who proved that, along with other side effects of this method has initiated the development of angina and arrhythmia.

Gottshteyn doctor and his colleagues in the works devoted to the issues of brain activity even more sharply raised the issue, warning that in case of reduction in blood carbon dioxide concentrations below 2.5% oxygen deficiency arises, even in completely healthy people.We can not forget about it, intending to use therapeutic hyperventilation.

Remember that this warning should be taken note of all the experts, using a technique hyperventilation provocation.Its use can dramatically reduce the flow of oxygen to the brain and heart.What?Correctly.