to the main clinical symptoms of respiratory failure are shortness of breath and cyanosis, additional - anxiety, euphoria, sometimes drowsiness, lethargy, lack of consciousness, seizures.
Symptoms of respiratory failure - shortness
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) - the feeling of lack of air and the associated need to strengthen the breath.Dyspnea accompanied by objective change its frequency, depth and rate, duration of inhalation and exhalation.The presence of a painful sensation of lack of air, which causes the patient not only unconsciously but deliberately to increase the activity of the respiratory movements, is the most significant difference between the dyspnea from other types of violations of the regulation of breathing -. Polypnoea hyperpnoea, etc. Therefore, a person in an unconscious state of breathlessness are no symptoms.
Shortness of breath due to excitation of the inspiratory center, which is distributed not only on the periphery to the respiratory muscles, but also in the overlying
subjective sensation of shortness of breath is not always consistent with its objective symptoms.Thus, in some cases, patients complain of a feeling of lack of air in the absence of objective signs of respiratory distress, apnea, iethere is a false sense of shortness of breath.On the other hand, there are cases when at a constant dyspnea patient gets used to it and ceases to feel, although there are all symptoms of shortness of breath (the patient gasps, often takes a breath when speaking) and significant violations of respiratory function.
Depending on respiratory phase is divided into inspiratory dyspnea, expiratory and mixed.Inspiratory dyspnea, which is characterized by difficulty in inspiration, there is a narrowing of the lumen of the upper respiratory tract (diphtheritic croup, throat swelling, compression of the trachea).
When expiratory dyspnea difficult breath, which may occur during an attack of asthma.Mixed shortness characterized by difficulty as the inspiratory phase and the exhalation phase and occurs in diseases of the lungs, accompanied by a decrease in respiratory surface.
Symptoms of respiratory failure - cyanosis
second important clinical sign of respiratory failure is cyanosis - bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes due to a high content of hemoglobin in the blood.Cyanosis detected clinically only when the circulating blood contains more than 50 g / l of reduced hemoglobin (norm - 30 g / l).When symptoms of acute respiratory failure, cyanosis may develop within a few seconds or minutes, cyanosis develops gradually in patients with chronic respiratory failure symptoms.Cyanosis is more noticeable on the lips, face, fingers, and the nails.
To distinguish central and peripheral cyanosis.For respiratory disease characterized by symptoms such as a central cyanosis, which is characterized by diffuse, ash-gray skin color, due to the accelerated blood flow is warm to the touch.Peripheral cyanosis is due to the slowdown of blood flow in the tissues and is observed in diseases of the cardiovascular system.This is the nature of cyanosis acrocyanosis - expressed on the hands and feet, on the earlobes, often has a reddish hue, the skin feels cold.If after 5 - 12 minutes inhaling pure oxygen, cyanosis disappears, it confirms the presence of peripheral cyanosis.