Acute bronchitis - acute diffuse inflammation of the bronchial mucosa (acute endobronchitis), at least - at the same time other shells bronchial walls, up to the total destruction of their (panbronhit), without the involvement of the lung parenchyma.Defeat airway diameter of 2 mm or less is called acute bronchiolitis.Bronchiolitis in adults is rarely, and almost always in the background of the symptoms of acute bronchitis, significantly complicating its course, which is why acute bronchitis and acute bronchiolitis considered together.Symptoms of acute bronchitis among the most common respiratory diseases.In this article we will discuss the symptoms of acute bronchitis and the main signs of acute bronchitis in humans.Also in the article you will learn how acute bronchitis occurs.
Acute Bronchitis - Symptoms
Symptoms of acute bronchitis often have the character of "descending" infection.Symptoms of acute bronchitis usually develop (often in conjunction with tracheitis) or immediately after acute respir
reasons for the onset of symptoms of acute bronchitis
most common symptoms of acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis cause influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses.Perhaps the subsequent accession of the symptoms of a bacterial infection.Of the bacterial pathogens most often isolated by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, a-hemolytic streptococci and other.Symptoms of acute bronchitis may develop severe irritant by inhalation and chemical warfare agents, exposure to cold and hot air, the infectious factor in this case is secondary.
Risk factors for symptoms of acute bronchitis: chronic respiratory diseases, immunodefiitnye state, elderly or children's age, smoking (including passive), air pollutants (dust, chemical agents).
Acute bronchitis - signs
Onset of the disease - the appearance of symptoms of painful dry cough.After 2-3 days, the cough becomes wet with the Department of mucous expectoration.When you join a bacterial infection symptoms sputum becomes mucopurulent, sometimes purulent.Sometimes in severe prolonged bouts of coughing sputum streaked with blood appearing.The symptoms are accompanied by cough Sore pain in the chest and pain, respectively, the location of the diaphragm.Often cough violates the patient's sleep.As further proceeds bronchitis?Upon accession, bronchiolitis symptoms develop expiratory dyspnea, cyanosis, and other symptoms of respiratory failure.Weakness, increased body temperature to febrile values often reflect a picture of ARD or so flows bronchiolitis.
prevalence of symptoms of acute bronchitis
The true prevalence of symptoms of acute bronchitis in Russia is unknown, since only patients with severe symptoms to seek medical help and fall into the statistical reporting, which is more than 40% uptake in the clinic, associated with respiratory diseases.According to the United States, more than 12 million people each year suffer symptoms of acute bronchitis (5% of the population).
How is acute bronchitis?
course of the disease acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis - the pathogenesis
initial pathogenesis of acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis is Vgeziya pathogens (usually viruses) on epithelial cells lining the trachea and bronchi.Reduced the effectiveness of physical protection factor (the ability of the upper respiratory tract to filter inhaled air (to release him from rough mechanical particles, changing the temperature and humidity, the reflexes of coughing and sneezing, mucociliary transport) it contributes to the invasion of the pathogen from the symptoms of acute bronchitis. The likelihood of developing acute bronchitis is directly linkedwith a reduction in non-specific resistance of the airways and Immunity. microcirculatory disturbances, allergic reactions also contribute to the flow of acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis.
In response to the penetration of the pathogen in acute bronchitis and its symptoms develop redness and swelling of the bronchial mucosa, desquamation columnar epithelium, mucous or appearsmuco-purulent exudate. The penetration of the infectious agent contributes to the decrease in the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The impact of the pathogen of acute bronchitis leads to disruption of the mucociliary clearance.Action adverse environmental conditions, industrial factors or smoking also reduces the rate of elimination of particles from the surface of the airway epithelium with symptoms of acute bronchitis.
The death and sloughing of the epithelium of bronchi with the symptoms of acute bronchitis, swelling of the bronchial mucosa and hypersecretion of bronchial glands contribute to the development of obstructive component.When damaged bronchial epithelium with symptoms of acute bronchitis its regeneration occurs within 2 weeks.If the damage submucosa and panbronhite recovery can occur within 3 months.
Pathology of acute bronchitis and its symptoms
Acute bronchitis often occurs endobronchitis by type and is characterized by hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, desquamation columnar epithelium, the formation of mucous or muco-purulent exudate.Together with the loss of ciliated epithelium of the symptoms of acute bronchitis increases the number of goblet cells.Acute bronchitis pathological picture depending on the type of bronchitis.Patency of small bronchi and bronchioles violated by accumulation of inflammatory exudate and desquamation of bronchial epithelium.
diagnosis of acute bronchitis on the symptoms and signs
objective examination of signs of acute bronchitis
symptoms such as trembling of the voice and percussion sound usually does not change when the signs of acute bronchitis.Auscultation reveals signs: rigid breathing, wheezing - in the early stages of the disease, dry, different tone, but with the advent of phlegm - damp, changes its character after the cough.how further proceeds diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis.
Laboratory studies of symptoms of acute bronchitis
The general analysis of blood - the symptoms of moderate leukocytosis and slight increase in ESR.Sputum smear stained by the Thunder, to evaluate the type of pathogenic microflora and reasonably assign antibacterial drug during the flow of acute bronchitis.All coughing phlegm and allocate more than 2 weeks requires sputum smear stained by Ziehl-Nielsen, to eliminate tuberculosis.Bacteriological examination of sputum for symptoms of acute bronchitis gives the opportunity to more accurately identify the pathogen and to evaluate its sensitivity to antibiotics.
study of respiratory function with symptoms of acute bronchitis
study of respiratory function (ERF) with signs of acute bronchitis allows you to quickly identify violations of bronchial obstruction, which can be diagnosed during spirometry recording curve "flow-volume" or with commonly available peak flow.Obstructive syndrome is particularly characteristic feature of accession of acute bronchiolitis.
X-ray study of the symptoms of acute bronchitis
X-ray examination of the chest with the symptoms of acute bronchitis is indicated in protracted course of acute bronchitis or in the case where a patient with a cough last 2 years did not pass inspection routine fluorography.When ray examination is usually no change in lung tissue, but sometimes there has been increasing pulmonary pattern with symptoms of acute bronchitis.
Bronchoscopy with symptoms of acute bronchitis
Bronchoscopy with symptoms of acute bronchitis does not apply to mandatory studies in acute bronchitis.When diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy detected catarrhal or purulent endobronchitis and exclude more serious diseases.
Differential diagnosis of acute bronchitis when the first symptoms
Acute bronchitis is usually diagnosed not by signs, and by the way the proceeds acute bronchitis, by process of elimination bronchopneumonia, chronic bronchitis, cough form of bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, respiratory and neoplastic andtumor-like formations (eg, conglomerate increased intrathoracic lymph nodes).
case of persistent symptoms of acute bronchitis for more than 10 days (within the limits of this period with a favorable course of bronchitis should be a positive trend) necessary to carry out radiography of the chest, tomography, bronchoscopy with taking several bronchial contents wash specimens for culture and cytology (bronchoalveolar lavage)the symptoms of acute bronchitis.
Local changes in the lungs with symptoms of acute bronchitis (eg, lesions, infiltrates, tricks, ring-shaped shadows) on chest radiograph are not specific signs of acute bronchitis or bronchiolitis.In identifying the volumetric formations or dissemination of lesions on chest radiograph is performed other research methods, such as transbronchial or transthoracic biopsy.
case of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis requires sputum smear.