Diseases of the cardiovascular system in athletes

sudden death

Despite the positive effects of regular physical activity classes cases of sudden death during or immediately after the occupation still sometimes occur.At least 70% of these cases are due to atherosclerosis.Although sudden death - the first and only manifestation of the disease in about 30% of the victims, many older athletes (over 30 years), there are significant prodromal symptoms.In many cases, people these symptoms are not paying attention, often believing that practicing physical activity will have a protective effect.For this reason, doctors do not pay attention to the symptoms suggestive of coronary heart disease in an athlete.

It is important to remember that even marathon runners do not have immunity against coronary heart disease.They should be evaluated in the same way as patients, leading a sedentary lifestyle, suffering pains in the chest and other symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease.This is especially important in the case of risk factors for coronary heart di

sease.

Risk factors for coronary heart disease are:

- coronary disease in close relatives;

- hyper lipidemia;

- hypertension;

- smoking;

- diabetes;

- a sedentary lifestyle;

- the male sex;

- age (for example, post-menopausal women).

cause of sudden death associated with blood vessels, is a congenital abnormality of the coronary arteries, coronary artery spasm, due to physical exertion, a spasm of the coronary vessels due to any drugs (eg, cocaine).Fortunately, pain in the chest and heart palpitations can occur during exercise, forcing the athlete to see a doctor.The relevant examination, including an electrocardiogram, echocardiography, stress tests, etc., will establish the diagnosis.If there is a suspicion of coronary heart disease in women, the most appropriate diagnostic test is a load echocardiography.

non-coronary heart disease - the major cause of sudden death in young athletes.Up to 21, about 50% of sudden deaths are the result of subaortic stenosis caused by congenital hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Studies show that a significant number of athletes in this age group were observed symptoms such as the chest pain, syncope, or dyspnea on exertion.ECG may show left ventricular hypertrophy, however, to confirm the diagnosis is possible only by means of echocardiograms.Proved risk factors in this group are cases of ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia and sudden death among close relatives.

cause of sudden death is not associated with vessels, are:

- mitral valve prolapse;

- primary cardiomyopathy (congestive);

- violations conductivity, including the Wolff - Parkinson - White;

- aortic dissection (particularly at the syndrome Marfina);

- blunt cardiac injury;

- postvirusny myocarditis.

In 1980, world-class volleyball player died in a dissecting aneurysm in conjunction with the syndrome Marfina.Many basketball and volleyball teams now regularly held a screening in order to identify the syndrome Marfina players, as well as removed echocardiograms to detect signs of expansion and separation of the aortic root.For Marfan syndrome is characterized by:

- arachnodactyly and free joint;

- thinness combined with a very tall and excessively long lower limbs;

- deformity of the anterior chest;

- high arch of heaven;

- scoliosis;

- ectopia of the lens in about 75% of cases;

- expansion of the aortic root, blood regurgitation with aortic valve and aneurysm;

- autosomal dominant inheritance.

not related to the activities of the cardiovascular system of the causes of sudden death in young athletes include cerebral arteriovenous malformations and cerebral aneurysm rupture.