burn rate of the upper and lower respiratory tract grows with an increase in the area of skin burns.So, in case of burns of the respiratory tract to 9% share of the respiratory tract burns body surface area is 2.5%, and with the defeat of 50% of the body surface, and more - 67.4%.
First aid for burns of the respiratory tract
if skin lesions in combination with burns of the respiratory tract develops burn disease with severe complications and mutual syndrome.All patients with burns of the respiratory tract to be hospitalized.
With increasing signs of asphyxia as a first aid shows endotracheal intubation.If it is impossible intubation shows the tracheostomy.
mandatory condition for first aid burns of the respiratory tract is the use of inhaled bronchodilators mixtures, antihistamines and thinning phlegm agents, corticosteroids, antibiotics, oxygen therapy.
Inhalation therapy in patients with burns of the respiratory tract must be started from the first minute of your stay in the hospital.
chemical burns of the respiratory tract
Chemical burns are the result of exposure to the skin or mucous membranes of corrosive liquids, concentrated acids, alkalis and salts of some heavy metals.The depth of tissue damage depends on several factors:
- the nature of the substance;
- on its concentration;
- on its temperature;
- on duration of contact.
symptoms of respiratory tract burns
probability of burns of the respiratory tract is determined by the circumstances of the injury.These lesions most often occur as a result of exposure to flames, steam, hot air and smoke in enclosed spaces.The presence of the victim's burns to the face and neck, burnt hair in the nose, touch of soot on the tongue and palate, whitish patches of necrosis in the oral cavity, the rear wall of the nasal congestion, hoarseness to aphonia, sore throat when swallowing, dry cough, shortness of breath dodiagnosis of respiratory tract burns unquestionable.
most complete picture of the respiratory tract burns can be seen through bronchofibroscopy allowing objectively evaluate the depth and extent of the burn.In the first 9-12 hours at a burn of the upper and lower respiratory tract occurs and develops bronchospasm airway edema, pulmonary, with the further development of inflammatory lesions in the respiratory tract and lungs.
burn the respiratory tract - the pathogenesis
- violation of the tracheobronchial tree functions in connection with the defeat of bronchospasm and ciliated epithelium;
- changes in the lung tissue itself due to a violation of the microcirculation.
Burn airway acid
Of the mineral acids are most common burns sulfuric and hydrochloric acids.As a result of acid to the skin occurs coagulation of tissue colloids (coagulation necrosis) and the dry crust is formed, which prevents further penetration of the acid.Scab under the action of sulfuric acid - dark gray, almost black.Under the action of hydrochloric acid - blue-sapphire, nitric acid - yellow.Acetic acid and carbolic leave spots on the skin of greenish color, which gradually darkens.Burns acids tend to be deep.
when administering first aid is usually a fairly long washing the affected area with water.Washing with sodium bicarbonate solution is more efficient than washing with running water.Another thing that hampers the use of neutralizing solutions on the spot, a frequent lack of knowledge of the chemical nature of the agent.Therefore, when first aid is advisable to apply for a long period (at least 20-30 minutes) wash the wound with running water.Further treatment
acids burns differs from that of thermal burns.Acid burns often lead to scarring, includingkeloid and contractures.
alkali chemical burns
caustic burns occur more frequently than burns caustic potassium or lime.
Alkalis cause wet (kollikvatsionny) necrosis.Undergone necrotic tissue damage for several more days contain alkali.Under the influence of bases forms a soft, damp, penetrating peel white.
first aid for burns alkali
most commonly alkali burns are deep.Durables and copious rinsing with running water in the provision of first aid is enough, if washing is carried out immediately after the burn.Exceptions are burned lime.When mixing quicklime with water strong exothermic reaction occurs.Therefore, upon contact of the skin with quicklime as first aid produce mechanical removal of part of the lime, followed by washing with olive oil or liquid petrolatum.Further treatment of burns performed as in thermal burns.
extensive burns caused by various chemicals, can lead to significant changes in the internal organs, as well as to intoxication.The above must be taken into account in the overall treatment, topical antidotes, targeted detoxification.
Table 1. The neutralizing agents used topically when exposed to chemical agents
long (20-30 minutes) washing with running water
1% solution of acetic acid 0.5-3% solution of boric acid
40-70% ethyl alcohol
5% p-ry sodium hydrogen carbonate, potassium permanganate or copper sulfate
1% solution of hyposulphite of sodium
aluminum organic compounds