types tongs normal brush
Consider what types of grippers normal brush.Tong may be supportive or dynamic.Dynamic gripper occurs when the fingers are adapted to the shape of the object.Forces are regulated by conscious activity in the cerebral cortex, in cooperation with the memory.Brain image has been created, it can stimulate an active and repeated movements.Association arbitrary (conscious) memory movement and forms of experience.Applicable experience is a skill.The dynamic phase of tip gripper is accompanied by a static phase lock on the object.
Supporting tong is mainly static.Brush object confronts weight only without adapting to its shape.Brush usually remains flat object lies on the palmar surface of all or part of it.This does not fix grip an object, but it can be very powerful because all muscles of forearm and hand together withstand the weight of the object.Another type of support gripper is used as a waiter h
types tongs normal brush.Tong 1 finger
When you grab one finger defining is its mobility.In contrast palmar surface of the distal phalanx comes into direct contact with the palmar surface of the distal phalanges of the remaining fingers.The opposition - a joint movement, involving all three segments of the beam 1: metacarpal segment engages in antepozitsii surface and then to the enforcement, ie the movement, which is accompanied by "automatic" longitudinal rotation in pronation...The proximal phalanx of the I toe bends proniruetsya and deflected in the radial direction.The distal phalanx flexed to different degrees, and it is accompanied by a small flexion pronation, adapted to the requirements of the gripper.It is obvious that the volume of opposition movement requires broad movable interdigital spaces, and any contracture of the interdigital area (skin, muscle, tendinous, aponeurotic or capsular ligamentous) I will limit the mobility of the finger.
Depending on the area of skin contact between the first and finger trehfalangovymi can describe several types of end-of tongs.
Limit gripper reduces finger tip I tip with opposed thumb.Thus, I and II on contact fingers between their tips can accurately pinch a small object, while all of the joints are bent to form the correct letter "O".Tong fragile, with the exception of its use for small items.Subterminal podushechkovy gripper brings the palmar surface of the distal phalanx pronated 1 finger in contact with the palmar surface of the distal phalanx of the thumb opposed to supine, with the distal phalanx of the two fingers almost completely unfolded.Thus, the operation involved in the plasticity and high sensitivity of the soft tissue of the distal phalanges.Subterminal tongs are used more often than the terminal.
Limit gripper between the first and finger trehfalangovymi
subterminal podushechkovy tong
types tongs normal brush.Side gripper between the distal phalanx of thumb I and the side surface of the II finger
Side key gripper is formed between the distal phalanx of the I toe and lateral (radial) surface II finger - a typical grip for turning the key in the lock.
Tong is very strong, but not exact.However, the side gripper can be very useful, since the restoration of mobility is necessary only on one jaw of the forceps, usually along the line of the I toe.The key grabbed involved short flexor and adductor I thumb and first dorsal interosseous muscle to help stabilize II finger in the direction of the ray.Side gripper can be subdivided into the lateral-tong proximal to the proximal phalanx II finger, medial-lateral gripper with an average phalanx, distal and lateral-tong with the distal phalanx.The most used is the lateral distal gripper.
A. I. Kapandji (1992) proposed a numerical method for the evaluation of opposition I finger.This method is based on sequential I and II grabbed the finger in the course of a wide opposition.Eleven stages are characterized as follows:
Kapandji numerical method for evaluating the opposition I finger.Presented eleven successive stages
• Stage 0 - I tip toe in contact with the lateral surface of the proximal phalanx of the thumb II;
• Stage 1 - 1 finger tip in contact with the lateral surface of the middle phalanx of the finger II;
• Stage 2 - 1 finger tip in contact with the side surface of the distal phalanx of the finger II;
• Stage 3 - between the end gripper fingers I and II;
• Stage 4 - terminal between the gripper fingers I and III;
• Stage 5 - between the end gripper fingers I and IV;
• Stage 6 - end between the gripper fingers I and V;
• Step 7 - I tip of the finger is in contact with the distal interphalangeal crease V finger;
• Stage 8 - I tip of the finger is in contact with the crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the finger V;
• Step 9 - I tip of the finger is in contact with the proximal fold V finger;
• Step 10 - I finger tip reaches the distal palmar crease at the base of V finger.
opposition considers the full when the stage 10 after serial passage of all previous ones.In fact, the stage 10 can be achieved by moving the finger on the palm of your hand I, passing the specified point on the fingers.
I, II and III fingers have a dynamic action and work together to form a "dynamic tripod" element, which would be better described as "dynamic trehdaktiliey» ( «dynamic tridactyl»).In reconstructive hand surgery is an increase in functional stability when the gripper is replaced by a two-way three-point fixation.Many of the normal functions of the brush, such as a letter, lifting, holding the cup by the handle and use a fork, carried out with a three-point fixation.IV and V fingers typically operate together to provide support and static control.
Bent fingers are opposed tenarnomu elevation brush.Tenarnoe elevation finger or I act as a support.Theoretically, palmar-finger gripper can I exclude finger.
When cylindrical grab all the palmar surface of the palm and fingers covering a cylindrical object, and I finger ring forms around it.
When spherical grab all the fingers and the palm completely cover the spherical object (ball or an apple).
At fist grasping a relatively thin object captured in a fist, and I lay a finger on the back surface of the other fingers, enhancing grip.
Usually finger flexing begins at the level of the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints and ends by bending the distal interphalangeal joint.When paralysis intercostals muscles change the sequence of bending.Thus, the bending of the fingers is only performed long flexors acting first on the distal phalanx, which when bent fingers ahead of time close to the palm, and the brush is losing the ability to capture large objects.
Buckler Tong: A - direction of the force of fist gripper corresponds to the longitudinal axis of the brush;B - grab an object on an inclined axis of the palm or palm deepening has a longer contact area, multiple podushechkovy more precise gripper between trehfalangovymi and I finger
If grabbed, hooked fingers bent at the proximal interphalangeal joint, I given a finger.This type of gripper is used when moving or lifting bags.Endurance is due to the deep digital flexor.Tong deliberately created in some types of reconstruction by the proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in flexion.
tong tong Scissor side is between the lateral surfaces of two adjacent fingers, mostly II and III.Mechanically, this gripper is less effective than the above types.Participating in it are weaker muscles.Abduction and adduction of the proximal phalanges of several enhanced long flexors.This gripper is used only for small, light objects and to compensate for the functional loss of the I toe.