Greats plastic surgery
Plastic Surgery.Great men of plastic surgery.It is impossible not to mention the details of one of the first French surgeon Ambroise Pare (1516 - 1560).It occupies the same place in the history of surgery, both in the history of the anatomy of Vesalius.During the wars of 1536 - 1569's, A. Pare was with the troops Montezho (Montejeau), and then Rohan (Rohan) as a field surgeon.He developed methods of treating gunshot wounds, put into practice the ointment dressing instead of cauterizing wounds with a hot iron, or oil, as well as a bandage (ligature) major bleeding vessels, operations and amputations.He first published his method of treating wounds in 1545, when he was 35 years old.A. Pare is also engaged in the development of methods of linear cheiloplasty when refreshed edge cleft connected in a straight line with a needle around which was wound waxed thread in the form of eight (Carlsbad pin).
noteworthy that A. Pare was self-taught in medicine.He did not receive not only special medical, and general system of education.However, this did not prevent him from playing a significant role in the transformation of craft surgery in scientific medical discipline.
Greats plastic surgery.Jacques Guillemeau (1 550 - one thousand six hundred thirteen) as well as A. Pare, working on a cleft upper lip, in the chapter of his book «Les oeuvres de chirurgie» recommend doing relaxing incisions in the skin of the cheeks.If the edges of the wound were in tension, they were carried out by one or two pins Carlsbad.This is well illustrated in the book by F. Le Dran (1749).Carlsbad pins have also been applied in the application of the first vascular suture in the brachial artery at the edge of her damaged in 1759 by an English physician Hallowell, which was a prerequisite for the development of recovery operations on the vessels.
method of closing a defect of the upper lip cleft at its Carlsbad pins described in the book by F. Le Dran «Operations in Surgery» (1749)
Since 1744, with the German surgeon activities L. Heister began its systematic development of plastic surgerycongenital facial clefts.The first surgery for congenital cleft palate is attributed to the French dentist Le Monier.Desso in 1791 for the first time eliminated the bilateral cleft, successfully combining prolyabium with side fragments of the upper lip.The earliest reports of surgical treatment of congenital clefts in Russia are working JF Bush (1807), and X. X. Solomon (1840).
In 1792 Beer in the surgical textbook there are the first to describe the correction of skin folds in the upper eyelids.At about this time, eyelid surgery has become a successfully developed and implemented by European experts.
believed that a special interest in cosmetic surgery of the face revived in Europe in 1794.It was then that the London magazine «Gentleman's Magazine» published an article on the plastic nose, produced an Indian operator, while the article was supplemented by drawings.
It said one of the Indians, who had served in the British Army as a cattle drover and was captured by his former master.
Cover of «Gentleman's Magazine»
As punishment for the fact that he served the enemy, he was cut off the nose and right hand.This disfigured as he was returned to the British.Wishing to rebuild his nose, in Bombay, he turned to a member of a potter caste, who was involved in operations on the nose plastic.When the operation was also attended by two English doctors.The intervention described is plausible.First, the operator has made of wax plate shape of the nose, then it outlined the contours of the future of the nose on the forehead, and then began the actual transplantation of skin graft.After surgery a bandage was imposed with the clay, which is moistened with oil.After 5 days, the bandage was removed, and the wound poured melted butter.On the 10th day in the nasal passages began to enter the strip material soaked with oil.After 25 days, the operator cut the remaining edge of the flap.From the operation described in «Aurvedy», this method is characterized in that there is recommended to cut out from the forehead skin via leaf plants, the same size as the nose, and in this case the used wax for the nose plate shape.In 1814, the English surgeon J. S. Carpue published a description of two such operations, which he successfully made, and he strengthened flap to the defect seams.Since then, the Indian method of nasal plastic catch on in Europe.
Illustration Rhinoplasty Indian way of book NE Fritze and D. F. G. Reich «Die Plastishe Chirurgie»